why didn't gcc catch that...
[xonotic/gmqcc.git] / ir.cpp
diff --git a/ir.cpp b/ir.cpp
index 5920361c7314bb36394bb16a09058adcb665754e..787a126cd6907bd68027fe24d26125ca0a6f796b 100644 (file)
--- a/ir.cpp
+++ b/ir.cpp
@@ -190,30 +190,19 @@ const uint16_t type_not_instr[TYPE_COUNT] = {
 };
 
 /* protos */
-static ir_value*       ir_value_var(const char *name, int st, int vtype);
-static bool            ir_value_set_name(ir_value*, const char *name);
 static void            ir_value_dump(ir_value*, int (*oprintf)(const char*,...));
 
 static ir_value*       ir_gen_extparam_proto(ir_builder *ir);
 static void            ir_gen_extparam      (ir_builder *ir);
 
-static bool            ir_builder_set_name(ir_builder *self, const char *name);
-
-static ir_function*    ir_function_new(ir_builder *owner, int returntype);
-static bool            ir_function_set_name(ir_function*, const char *name);
-static void            ir_function_delete(ir_function*);
 static void            ir_function_dump(ir_function*, char *ind, int (*oprintf)(const char*,...));
 
 static ir_value*       ir_block_create_general_instr(ir_block *self, lex_ctx_t, const char *label,
-                                        int op, ir_value *a, ir_value *b, int outype);
-static void            ir_block_delete(ir_block*);
-static ir_block*       ir_block_new(ir_function *owner, const char *label);
+                                                     int op, ir_value *a, ir_value *b, qc_type outype);
 static bool GMQCC_WARN ir_block_create_store(ir_block*, lex_ctx_t, ir_value *target, ir_value *what);
-static bool            ir_block_set_label(ir_block*, const char *label);
 static void            ir_block_dump(ir_block*, char *ind, int (*oprintf)(const char*,...));
 
 static bool            ir_instr_op(ir_instr*, int op, ir_value *value, bool writing);
-static void            ir_instr_delete(ir_instr*);
 static void            ir_instr_dump(ir_instr* in, char *ind, int (*oprintf)(const char*,...));
 /* error functions */
 
@@ -239,15 +228,14 @@ static bool GMQCC_WARN irwarning(lex_ctx_t ctx, int warntype, const char *fmt, .
  * Vector utility functions
  */
 
-static bool GMQCC_WARN vec_ir_value_find(ir_value **vec, const ir_value *what, size_t *idx)
+static bool GMQCC_WARN vec_ir_value_find(std::vector<ir_value *> &vec, const ir_value *what, size_t *idx)
 {
-    size_t i;
-    size_t len = vec_size(vec);
-    for (i = 0; i < len; ++i) {
-        if (vec[i] == what) {
-            if (idx) *idx = i;
-            return true;
-        }
+    for (auto &it : vec) {
+        if (it != what)
+            continue;
+        if (idx)
+            *idx = &it - &vec[0];
+        return true;
     }
     return false;
 }
@@ -265,15 +253,14 @@ static bool GMQCC_WARN vec_ir_block_find(ir_block **vec, ir_block *what, size_t
     return false;
 }
 
-static bool GMQCC_WARN vec_ir_instr_find(ir_instr **vec, ir_instr *what, size_t *idx)
+static bool GMQCC_WARN vec_ir_instr_find(std::vector<ir_instr *> &vec, ir_instr *what, size_t *idx)
 {
-    size_t i;
-    size_t len = vec_size(vec);
-    for (i = 0; i < len; ++i) {
-        if (vec[i] == what) {
-            if (idx) *idx = i;
-            return true;
-        }
+    for (auto &it : vec) {
+        if (it != what)
+            continue;
+        if (idx)
+            *idx = &it - &vec[0];
+        return true;
     }
     return false;
 }
@@ -286,100 +273,54 @@ static void ir_block_delete_quick(ir_block* self);
 static void ir_instr_delete_quick(ir_instr *self);
 static void ir_function_delete_quick(ir_function *self);
 
-ir_builder* ir_builder_new(const char *modulename)
+void* ir_builder::operator new(std::size_t bytes)
 {
-    ir_builder* self;
-    size_t      i;
-
-    self = (ir_builder*)mem_a(sizeof(*self));
-    if (!self)
-        return NULL;
-
-    self->functions   = NULL;
-    self->globals     = NULL;
-    self->fields      = NULL;
-    self->filenames   = NULL;
-    self->filestrings = NULL;
-    self->htglobals   = util_htnew(IR_HT_SIZE);
-    self->htfields    = util_htnew(IR_HT_SIZE);
-    self->htfunctions = util_htnew(IR_HT_SIZE);
-
-    self->extparams       = NULL;
-    self->extparam_protos = NULL;
+    return mem_a(bytes);
+}
 
-    self->first_common_globaltemp = 0;
-    self->max_globaltemps         = 0;
-    self->first_common_local      = 0;
-    self->max_locals              = 0;
+void ir_builder::operator delete(void *ptr)
+{
+    mem_d(ptr);
+}
 
-    self->str_immediate = 0;
-    self->name = NULL;
-    if (!ir_builder_set_name(self, modulename)) {
-        mem_d(self);
-        return NULL;
-    }
+ir_builder::ir_builder(const std::string& modulename)
+: name(modulename),
+  code(new code_t)
+{
+    htglobals   = util_htnew(IR_HT_SIZE);
+    htfields    = util_htnew(IR_HT_SIZE);
+    htfunctions = util_htnew(IR_HT_SIZE);
 
-    self->nil = ir_value_var("nil", store_value, TYPE_NIL);
-    self->nil->cvq = CV_CONST;
+    nil = new ir_value("nil", store_value, TYPE_NIL);
+    nil->cvq = CV_CONST;
 
-    for (i = 0; i != IR_MAX_VINSTR_TEMPS; ++i) {
+    for (size_t i = 0; i != IR_MAX_VINSTR_TEMPS; ++i) {
         /* we write to them, but they're not supposed to be used outside the IR, so
          * let's not allow the generation of ir_instrs which use these.
          * So it's a constant noexpr.
          */
-        self->vinstr_temp[i] = ir_value_var("vinstr_temp", store_value, TYPE_NOEXPR);
-        self->vinstr_temp[i]->cvq = CV_CONST;
+        vinstr_temp[i] = new ir_value("vinstr_temp", store_value, TYPE_NOEXPR);
+        vinstr_temp[i]->cvq = CV_CONST;
     }
-
-    self->reserved_va_count = NULL;
-    self->coverage_func     = NULL;
-
-    self->code              = code_init();
-
-    return self;
 }
 
-void ir_builder_delete(ir_builder* self)
+ir_builder::~ir_builder()
 {
-    size_t i;
-    util_htdel(self->htglobals);
-    util_htdel(self->htfields);
-    util_htdel(self->htfunctions);
-    mem_d((void*)self->name);
-    for (i = 0; i != vec_size(self->functions); ++i) {
-        ir_function_delete_quick(self->functions[i]);
-    }
-    vec_free(self->functions);
-    for (i = 0; i != vec_size(self->extparams); ++i) {
-        ir_value_delete(self->extparams[i]);
-    }
-    vec_free(self->extparams);
-    vec_free(self->extparam_protos);
-    for (i = 0; i != vec_size(self->globals); ++i) {
-        ir_value_delete(self->globals[i]);
-    }
-    vec_free(self->globals);
-    for (i = 0; i != vec_size(self->fields); ++i) {
-        ir_value_delete(self->fields[i]);
-    }
-    ir_value_delete(self->nil);
-    for (i = 0; i != IR_MAX_VINSTR_TEMPS; ++i) {
-        ir_value_delete(self->vinstr_temp[i]);
-    }
-    vec_free(self->fields);
-    vec_free(self->filenames);
-    vec_free(self->filestrings);
-
-    code_cleanup(self->code);
-    mem_d(self);
-}
+    util_htdel(htglobals);
+    util_htdel(htfields);
+    util_htdel(htfunctions);
+    for (auto& f : functions)
+        ir_function_delete_quick(f.release());
+    functions.clear(); // delete them now before deleting the rest:
 
-bool ir_builder_set_name(ir_builder *self, const char *name)
-{
-    if (self->name)
-        mem_d((void*)self->name);
-    self->name = util_strdup(name);
-    return !!self->name;
+    delete nil;
+
+    for (size_t i = 0; i != IR_MAX_VINSTR_TEMPS; ++i) {
+        delete vinstr_temp[i];
+    }
+
+    extparams.clear();
+    extparam_protos.clear();
 }
 
 static ir_function* ir_builder_get_function(ir_builder *self, const char *name)
@@ -387,26 +328,22 @@ static ir_function* ir_builder_get_function(ir_builder *self, const char *name)
     return (ir_function*)util_htget(self->htfunctions, name);
 }
 
-ir_function* ir_builder_create_function(ir_builder *self, const char *name, int outtype)
+ir_function* ir_builder_create_function(ir_builder *self, const std::string& name, qc_type outtype)
 {
-    ir_function *fn = ir_builder_get_function(self, name);
+    ir_function *fn = ir_builder_get_function(self, name.c_str());
     if (fn) {
-        return NULL;
+        return nullptr;
     }
 
-    fn = ir_function_new(self, outtype);
-    if (!ir_function_set_name(fn, name))
-    {
-        ir_function_delete(fn);
-        return NULL;
-    }
-    vec_push(self->functions, fn);
-    util_htset(self->htfunctions, name, fn);
+    fn = new ir_function(self, outtype);
+    fn->name = name;
+    self->functions.emplace_back(fn);
+    util_htset(self->htfunctions, name.c_str(), fn);
 
     fn->value = ir_builder_create_global(self, fn->name, TYPE_FUNCTION);
     if (!fn->value) {
-        ir_function_delete(fn);
-        return NULL;
+        delete fn;
+        return nullptr;
     }
 
     fn->value->hasvalue = true;
@@ -422,21 +359,21 @@ static ir_value* ir_builder_get_global(ir_builder *self, const char *name)
     return (ir_value*)util_htget(self->htglobals, name);
 }
 
-ir_value* ir_builder_create_global(ir_builder *self, const char *name, int vtype)
+ir_value* ir_builder_create_global(ir_builder *self, const std::string& name, qc_type vtype)
 {
     ir_value *ve;
 
     if (name[0] != '#')
     {
-        ve = ir_builder_get_global(self, name);
+        ve = ir_builder_get_global(self, name.c_str());
         if (ve) {
-            return NULL;
+            return nullptr;
         }
     }
 
-    ve = ir_value_var(name, store_global, vtype);
-    vec_push(self->globals, ve);
-    util_htset(self->htglobals, name, ve);
+    ve = new ir_value(std::string(name), store_global, vtype);
+    self->globals.emplace_back(ve);
+    util_htset(self->htglobals, name.c_str(), ve);
     return ve;
 }
 
@@ -453,17 +390,17 @@ static ir_value* ir_builder_get_field(ir_builder *self, const char *name)
 }
 
 
-ir_value* ir_builder_create_field(ir_builder *self, const char *name, int vtype)
+ir_value* ir_builder_create_field(ir_builder *self, const std::string& name, qc_type vtype)
 {
-    ir_value *ve = ir_builder_get_field(self, name);
+    ir_value *ve = ir_builder_get_field(self, name.c_str());
     if (ve) {
-        return NULL;
+        return nullptr;
     }
 
-    ve = ir_value_var(name, store_global, TYPE_FIELD);
+    ve = new ir_value(std::string(name), store_global, TYPE_FIELD);
     ve->fieldtype = vtype;
-    vec_push(self->fields, ve);
-    util_htset(self->htfields, name, ve);
+    self->fields.emplace_back(ve);
+    util_htset(self->htfields, name.c_str(), ve);
     return ve;
 }
 
@@ -476,114 +413,49 @@ static void ir_function_enumerate(ir_function*);
 static bool ir_function_calculate_liferanges(ir_function*);
 static bool ir_function_allocate_locals(ir_function*);
 
-ir_function* ir_function_new(ir_builder* owner, int outtype)
+void* ir_function::operator new(std::size_t bytes)
 {
-    ir_function *self;
-    self = (ir_function*)mem_a(sizeof(*self));
-
-    if (!self)
-        return NULL;
-
-    memset(self, 0, sizeof(*self));
-
-    self->name = NULL;
-    if (!ir_function_set_name(self, "<@unnamed>")) {
-        mem_d(self);
-        return NULL;
-    }
-    self->flags = 0;
-
-    self->owner = owner;
-    self->context.file = "<@no context>";
-    self->context.line = 0;
-    self->outtype = outtype;
-    self->value = NULL;
-    self->builtin = 0;
-
-    self->params = NULL;
-    self->blocks = NULL;
-    self->values = NULL;
-    self->locals = NULL;
-
-    self->max_varargs = 0;
-
-    self->code_function_def = -1;
-    self->allocated_locals = 0;
-    self->globaltemps      = 0;
-
-    self->run_id = 0;
-    return self;
+    return mem_a(bytes);
 }
 
-bool ir_function_set_name(ir_function *self, const char *name)
+void ir_function::operator delete(void *ptr)
 {
-    if (self->name)
-        mem_d((void*)self->name);
-    self->name = util_strdup(name);
-    return !!self->name;
+    mem_d(ptr);
 }
 
-static void ir_function_delete_quick(ir_function *self)
+ir_function::ir_function(ir_builder* owner_, qc_type outtype_)
+: owner(owner_),
+  name("<@unnamed>"),
+  outtype(outtype_)
 {
-    size_t i;
-    mem_d((void*)self->name);
-
-    for (i = 0; i != vec_size(self->blocks); ++i)
-        ir_block_delete_quick(self->blocks[i]);
-    vec_free(self->blocks);
-
-    vec_free(self->params);
-
-    for (i = 0; i != vec_size(self->values); ++i)
-        ir_value_delete(self->values[i]);
-    vec_free(self->values);
-
-    for (i = 0; i != vec_size(self->locals); ++i)
-        ir_value_delete(self->locals[i]);
-    vec_free(self->locals);
-
-    /* self->value is deleted by the builder */
-
-    mem_d(self);
+    context.file = "<@no context>";
+    context.line = 0;
 }
 
-void ir_function_delete(ir_function *self)
+ir_function::~ir_function()
 {
-    size_t i;
-    mem_d((void*)self->name);
-
-    for (i = 0; i != vec_size(self->blocks); ++i)
-        ir_block_delete(self->blocks[i]);
-    vec_free(self->blocks);
-
-    vec_free(self->params);
-
-    for (i = 0; i != vec_size(self->values); ++i)
-        ir_value_delete(self->values[i]);
-    vec_free(self->values);
-
-    for (i = 0; i != vec_size(self->locals); ++i)
-        ir_value_delete(self->locals[i]);
-    vec_free(self->locals);
-
-    /* self->value is deleted by the builder */
+}
 
-    mem_d(self);
+static void ir_function_delete_quick(ir_function *self)
+{
+    for (auto& b : self->blocks)
+        ir_block_delete_quick(b.release());
+    delete self;
 }
 
 static void ir_function_collect_value(ir_function *self, ir_value *v)
 {
-    vec_push(self->values, v);
+    self->values.emplace_back(v);
 }
 
 ir_block* ir_function_create_block(lex_ctx_t ctx, ir_function *self, const char *label)
 {
-    ir_block* bn = ir_block_new(self, label);
+    ir_block* bn = new ir_block(self, label ? std::string(label) : std::string());
     bn->context = ctx;
-    vec_push(self->blocks, bn);
+    self->blocks.emplace_back(bn);
 
     if ((self->flags & IR_FLAG_BLOCK_COVERAGE) && self->owner->coverage_func)
-        (void)ir_block_create_call(bn, ctx, NULL, self->owner->coverage_func, false);
+        (void)ir_block_create_call(bn, ctx, nullptr, self->owner->coverage_func, false);
 
     return bn;
 }
@@ -601,13 +473,9 @@ static bool instr_is_operation(uint16_t op)
 
 static bool ir_function_pass_peephole(ir_function *self)
 {
-    size_t b;
-
-    for (b = 0; b < vec_size(self->blocks); ++b) {
-        size_t    i;
-        ir_block *block = self->blocks[b];
-
-        for (i = 0; i < vec_size(block->instr); ++i) {
+    for (auto& bp : self->blocks) {
+        ir_block *block = bp.get();
+        for (size_t i = 0; i < vec_size(block->instr); ++i) {
             ir_instr *inst;
             inst = block->instr[i];
 
@@ -640,7 +508,7 @@ static bool ir_function_pass_peephole(ir_function *self)
                     continue;
 
                 /* don't optimize out the temp if it's used later again */
-                if (vec_size(value->reads) != 1)
+                if (value->reads.size() != 1)
                     continue;
 
                 /* The very next store must use this value */
@@ -656,7 +524,7 @@ static bool ir_function_pass_peephole(ir_function *self)
                 (void)!ir_instr_op(oper, 0, store->_ops[0], true);
 
                 vec_remove(block->instr, i, 1);
-                ir_instr_delete(store);
+                delete store;
             }
             else if (inst->opcode == VINSTR_COND)
             {
@@ -670,12 +538,8 @@ static bool ir_function_pass_peephole(ir_function *self)
                     ir_value *value;
                     value = inst->_ops[0];
 
-                    if (value->store != store_value ||
-                        vec_size(value->reads) != 1 ||
-                        value->reads[0] != inst)
-                    {
+                    if (value->store != store_value || value->reads.size() != 1 || value->reads[0] != inst)
                         break;
-                    }
 
                     inot = value->writes[0];
                     if (inot->_ops[0] != value ||
@@ -702,7 +566,7 @@ static bool ir_function_pass_peephole(ir_function *self)
                         return false;
                     }
                     vec_remove(tmp->instr, inotid, 1);
-                    ir_instr_delete(inot);
+                    delete inot;
                     /* swap ontrue/onfalse */
                     tmp = inst->bops[0];
                     inst->bops[0] = inst->bops[1];
@@ -718,12 +582,13 @@ static bool ir_function_pass_peephole(ir_function *self)
 
 static bool ir_function_pass_tailrecursion(ir_function *self)
 {
-    size_t b, p;
+    size_t p;
+
+    for (auto& bp : self->blocks) {
+        ir_block *block = bp.get();
 
-    for (b = 0; b < vec_size(self->blocks); ++b) {
         ir_value *funcval;
-        ir_instr *ret, *call, *store = NULL;
-        ir_block *block = self->blocks[b];
+        ir_instr *ret, *call, *store = nullptr;
 
         if (!block->final || vec_size(block->instr) < 2)
             continue;
@@ -759,7 +624,7 @@ static bool ir_function_pass_tailrecursion(ir_function *self)
                 ++opts_optimizationcount[OPTIM_PEEPHOLE];
                 call->_ops[0] = store->_ops[0];
                 vec_remove(block->instr, vec_size(block->instr) - 2, 1);
-                ir_instr_delete(store);
+                delete store;
             }
             else
                 continue;
@@ -784,20 +649,20 @@ static bool ir_function_pass_tailrecursion(ir_function *self)
         block->final = false; /* open it back up */
 
         /* emite parameter-stores */
-        for (p = 0; p < vec_size(call->params); ++p) {
+        for (p = 0; p < call->params.size(); ++p) {
             /* assert(call->params_count <= self->locals_count); */
-            if (!ir_block_create_store(block, call->context, self->locals[p], call->params[p])) {
+            if (!ir_block_create_store(block, call->context, self->locals[p].get(), call->params[p])) {
                 irerror(call->context, "failed to create tailcall store instruction for parameter %i", (int)p);
                 return false;
             }
         }
-        if (!ir_block_create_jump(block, call->context, self->blocks[0])) {
+        if (!ir_block_create_jump(block, call->context, self->blocks[0].get())) {
             irerror(call->context, "failed to create tailcall jump");
             return false;
         }
 
-        ir_instr_delete(call);
-        ir_instr_delete(ret);
+        delete call;
+        delete ret;
     }
 
     return true;
@@ -805,21 +670,19 @@ static bool ir_function_pass_tailrecursion(ir_function *self)
 
 bool ir_function_finalize(ir_function *self)
 {
-    size_t i;
-
     if (self->builtin)
         return true;
 
     if (OPTS_OPTIMIZATION(OPTIM_PEEPHOLE)) {
         if (!ir_function_pass_peephole(self)) {
-            irerror(self->context, "generic optimization pass broke something in `%s`", self->name);
+            irerror(self->context, "generic optimization pass broke something in `%s`", self->name.c_str());
             return false;
         }
     }
 
     if (OPTS_OPTIMIZATION(OPTIM_TAIL_RECURSION)) {
         if (!ir_function_pass_tailrecursion(self)) {
-            irerror(self->context, "tail-recursion optimization pass broke something in `%s`", self->name);
+            irerror(self->context, "tail-recursion optimization pass broke something in `%s`", self->name.c_str());
             return false;
         }
     }
@@ -829,8 +692,8 @@ bool ir_function_finalize(ir_function *self)
         return false;
     }
 
-    for (i = 0; i < vec_size(self->locals); ++i) {
-        ir_value *v = self->locals[i];
+    for (auto& lp : self->locals) {
+        ir_value *v = lp.get();
         if (v->vtype == TYPE_VECTOR ||
             (v->vtype == TYPE_FIELD && v->outtype == TYPE_VECTOR))
         {
@@ -839,8 +702,8 @@ bool ir_function_finalize(ir_function *self)
             ir_value_vector_member(v, 2);
         }
     }
-    for (i = 0; i < vec_size(self->values); ++i) {
-        ir_value *v = self->values[i];
+    for (auto& vp : self->values) {
+        ir_value *v = vp.get();
         if (v->vtype == TYPE_VECTOR ||
             (v->vtype == TYPE_FIELD && v->outtype == TYPE_VECTOR))
         {
@@ -859,21 +722,22 @@ bool ir_function_finalize(ir_function *self)
     return true;
 }
 
-ir_value* ir_function_create_local(ir_function *self, const char *name, int vtype, bool param)
+ir_value* ir_function_create_local(ir_function *self, const std::string& name, qc_type vtype, bool param)
 {
     ir_value *ve;
 
     if (param &&
-        vec_size(self->locals) &&
-        self->locals[vec_size(self->locals)-1]->store != store_param) {
+        !self->locals.empty() &&
+        self->locals.back()->store != store_param)
+    {
         irerror(self->context, "cannot add parameters after adding locals");
-        return NULL;
+        return nullptr;
     }
 
-    ve = ir_value_var(name, (param ? store_param : store_local), vtype);
+    ve = new ir_value(std::string(name), (param ? store_param : store_local), vtype);
     if (param)
         ve->locked = true;
-    vec_push(self->locals, ve);
+    self->locals.emplace_back(ve);
     return ve;
 }
 
@@ -881,138 +745,90 @@ ir_value* ir_function_create_local(ir_function *self, const char *name, int vtyp
  *IR Block
  */
 
-ir_block* ir_block_new(ir_function* owner, const char *name)
-{
-    ir_block *self;
-    self = (ir_block*)mem_a(sizeof(*self));
-    if (!self)
-        return NULL;
-
-    memset(self, 0, sizeof(*self));
-
-    self->label = NULL;
-    if (name && !ir_block_set_label(self, name)) {
-        mem_d(self);
-        return NULL;
-    }
-    self->owner = owner;
-    self->context.file = "<@no context>";
-    self->context.line = 0;
-    self->final = false;
-
-    self->instr   = NULL;
-    self->entries = NULL;
-    self->exits   = NULL;
-
-    self->eid = 0;
-    self->is_return = false;
-
-    self->living = NULL;
+void* ir_block::operator new(std::size_t bytes) {
+  return mem_a(bytes);
+}
 
-    self->generated = false;
+void ir_block::operator delete(void *data) {
+    mem_d(data);
+}
 
-    return self;
+ir_block::ir_block(ir_function* owner, const std::string& name)
+: owner(owner),
+  label(name)
+{
+    context.file = "<@no context>";
+    context.line = 0;
 }
 
-static void ir_block_delete_quick(ir_block* self)
+ir_block::~ir_block()
 {
-    size_t i;
-    if (self->label) mem_d(self->label);
-    for (i = 0; i != vec_size(self->instr); ++i)
-        ir_instr_delete_quick(self->instr[i]);
-    vec_free(self->instr);
-    vec_free(self->entries);
-    vec_free(self->exits);
-    vec_free(self->living);
-    mem_d(self);
+    for (size_t i = 0; i != vec_size(instr); ++i)
+        delete instr[i];
+    vec_free(instr);
+    vec_free(entries);
+    vec_free(exits);
 }
 
-void ir_block_delete(ir_block* self)
+static void ir_block_delete_quick(ir_block* self)
 {
     size_t i;
-    if (self->label) mem_d(self->label);
     for (i = 0; i != vec_size(self->instr); ++i)
-        ir_instr_delete(self->instr[i]);
+        ir_instr_delete_quick(self->instr[i]);
     vec_free(self->instr);
-    vec_free(self->entries);
-    vec_free(self->exits);
-    vec_free(self->living);
-    mem_d(self);
-}
-
-bool ir_block_set_label(ir_block *self, const char *name)
-{
-    if (self->label)
-        mem_d((void*)self->label);
-    self->label = util_strdup(name);
-    return !!self->label;
+    delete self;
 }
 
 /***********************************************************************
  *IR Instructions
  */
 
-static ir_instr* ir_instr_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, ir_block* owner, int op)
-{
-    ir_instr *self;
-    self = (ir_instr*)mem_a(sizeof(*self));
-    if (!self)
-        return NULL;
-
-    self->owner = owner;
-    self->context = ctx;
-    self->opcode = op;
-    self->_ops[0] = NULL;
-    self->_ops[1] = NULL;
-    self->_ops[2] = NULL;
-    self->bops[0] = NULL;
-    self->bops[1] = NULL;
-
-    self->phi    = NULL;
-    self->params = NULL;
-
-    self->eid = 0;
-
-    self->likely = true;
-    return self;
+void* ir_instr::operator new(std::size_t bytes) {
+  return mem_a(bytes);
 }
 
-static void ir_instr_delete_quick(ir_instr *self)
+void ir_instr::operator delete(void *data) {
+    mem_d(data);
+}
+
+ir_instr::ir_instr(lex_ctx_t ctx, ir_block* owner_, int op)
+: opcode(op),
+  context(ctx),
+  owner(owner_)
 {
-    vec_free(self->phi);
-    vec_free(self->params);
-    mem_d(self);
 }
 
-static void ir_instr_delete(ir_instr *self)
+ir_instr::~ir_instr()
 {
-    size_t i;
-    /* The following calls can only delete from
-     * vectors, we still want to delete this instruction
-     * so ignore the return value. Since with the warn_unused_result attribute
-     * gcc doesn't care about an explicit: (void)foo(); to ignore the result,
-     * I have to improvise here and use if(foo());
-     */
-    for (i = 0; i < vec_size(self->phi); ++i) {
+    // The following calls can only delete from
+    // vectors, we still want to delete this instruction
+    // so ignore the return value. Since with the warn_unused_result attribute
+    // gcc doesn't care about an explicit: (void)foo(); to ignore the result,
+    // I have to improvise here and use if(foo());
+    for (auto &it : phi) {
         size_t idx;
-        if (vec_ir_instr_find(self->phi[i].value->writes, self, &idx))
-            vec_remove(self->phi[i].value->writes, idx, 1);
-        if (vec_ir_instr_find(self->phi[i].value->reads, self, &idx))
-            vec_remove(self->phi[i].value->reads, idx, 1);
+        if (vec_ir_instr_find(it.value->writes, this, &idx))
+            it.value->writes.erase(it.value->writes.begin() + idx);
+        if (vec_ir_instr_find(it.value->reads, this, &idx))
+            it.value->reads.erase(it.value->reads.begin() + idx);
     }
-    vec_free(self->phi);
-    for (i = 0; i < vec_size(self->params); ++i) {
+    for (auto &it : params) {
         size_t idx;
-        if (vec_ir_instr_find(self->params[i]->writes, self, &idx))
-            vec_remove(self->params[i]->writes, idx, 1);
-        if (vec_ir_instr_find(self->params[i]->reads, self, &idx))
-            vec_remove(self->params[i]->reads, idx, 1);
-    }
-    vec_free(self->params);
-    (void)!ir_instr_op(self, 0, NULL, false);
-    (void)!ir_instr_op(self, 1, NULL, false);
-    (void)!ir_instr_op(self, 2, NULL, false);
-    mem_d(self);
+        if (vec_ir_instr_find(it->writes, this, &idx))
+            it->writes.erase(it->writes.begin() + idx);
+        if (vec_ir_instr_find(it->reads, this, &idx))
+            it->reads.erase(it->reads.begin() + idx);
+    }
+    (void)!ir_instr_op(this, 0, nullptr, false);
+    (void)!ir_instr_op(this, 1, nullptr, false);
+    (void)!ir_instr_op(this, 2, nullptr, false);
+}
+
+static void ir_instr_delete_quick(ir_instr *self)
+{
+    self->phi.clear();
+    self->params.clear();
+    delete self;
 }
 
 static bool ir_instr_op(ir_instr *self, int op, ir_value *v, bool writing)
@@ -1025,15 +841,15 @@ static bool ir_instr_op(ir_instr *self, int op, ir_value *v, bool writing)
     if (self->_ops[op]) {
         size_t idx;
         if (writing && vec_ir_instr_find(self->_ops[op]->writes, self, &idx))
-            vec_remove(self->_ops[op]->writes, idx, 1);
+            self->_ops[op]->writes.erase(self->_ops[op]->writes.begin() + idx);
         else if (vec_ir_instr_find(self->_ops[op]->reads, self, &idx))
-            vec_remove(self->_ops[op]->reads, idx, 1);
+            self->_ops[op]->reads.erase(self->_ops[op]->reads.begin() + idx);
     }
     if (v) {
         if (writing)
-            vec_push(v->writes, self);
+            v->writes.push_back(self);
         else
-            vec_push(v->reads, self);
+            v->reads.push_back(self);
     }
     self->_ops[op] = v;
     return true;
@@ -1058,89 +874,91 @@ static int32_t ir_value_code_addr(const ir_value *self)
     return self->code.globaladdr + self->code.addroffset;
 }
 
-ir_value* ir_value_var(const char *name, int storetype, int vtype)
+void* ir_value::operator new(std::size_t bytes) {
+  return mem_a(bytes);
+}
+
+void ir_value::operator delete(void *data) {
+    mem_d(data);
+}
+
+ir_value::ir_value(std::string&& name_, store_type store_, qc_type vtype_)
+: name(move(name_)),
+  vtype(vtype_),
+  store(store_)
 {
-    ir_value *self;
-    self = (ir_value*)mem_a(sizeof(*self));
-    self->vtype = vtype;
-    self->fieldtype = TYPE_VOID;
-    self->outtype = TYPE_VOID;
-    self->store = storetype;
-    self->flags = 0;
-
-    self->reads  = NULL;
-    self->writes = NULL;
-
-    self->cvq          = CV_NONE;
-    self->hasvalue     = false;
-    self->context.file = "<@no context>";
-    self->context.line = 0;
-    self->name = NULL;
-    if (name && !ir_value_set_name(self, name)) {
-        irerror(self->context, "out of memory");
-        mem_d(self);
-        return NULL;
-    }
-
-    memset(&self->constval, 0, sizeof(self->constval));
-    memset(&self->code,     0, sizeof(self->code));
-
-    self->members[0] = NULL;
-    self->members[1] = NULL;
-    self->members[2] = NULL;
-    self->memberof = NULL;
-
-    self->unique_life = false;
-    self->locked      = false;
-    self->callparam   = false;
-
-    self->life = NULL;
-    return self;
+    fieldtype = TYPE_VOID;
+    outtype = TYPE_VOID;
+    flags = 0;
+
+    cvq          = CV_NONE;
+    hasvalue     = false;
+    context.file = "<@no context>";
+    context.line = 0;
+
+    memset(&constval, 0, sizeof(constval));
+    memset(&code,     0, sizeof(code));
+
+    members[0] = nullptr;
+    members[1] = nullptr;
+    members[2] = nullptr;
+    memberof = nullptr;
+
+    unique_life = false;
+    locked = false;
+    callparam  = false;
+}
+
+ir_value::~ir_value()
+{
+    size_t i;
+    if (hasvalue) {
+        if (vtype == TYPE_STRING)
+            mem_d((void*)constval.vstring);
+    }
+    if (!(flags & IR_FLAG_SPLIT_VECTOR)) {
+        for (i = 0; i < 3; ++i) {
+            if (members[i])
+                delete members[i];
+        }
+    }
 }
 
+
 /*  helper function */
 static ir_value* ir_builder_imm_float(ir_builder *self, float value, bool add_to_list) {
-    ir_value *v = ir_value_var("#IMMEDIATE", store_global, TYPE_FLOAT);
+    ir_value *v = new ir_value("#IMMEDIATE", store_global, TYPE_FLOAT);
     v->flags |= IR_FLAG_ERASABLE;
     v->hasvalue = true;
     v->cvq = CV_CONST;
     v->constval.vfloat = value;
 
-    vec_push(self->globals, v);
+    self->globals.emplace_back(v);
     if (add_to_list)
-        vec_push(self->const_floats, v);
+        self->const_floats.emplace_back(v);
     return v;
 }
 
 ir_value* ir_value_vector_member(ir_value *self, unsigned int member)
 {
-    char     *name;
-    size_t    len;
+    std::string name;
     ir_value *m;
     if (member >= 3)
-        return NULL;
+        return nullptr;
 
     if (self->members[member])
         return self->members[member];
 
-    if (self->name) {
-        len = strlen(self->name);
-        name = (char*)mem_a(len + 3);
-        memcpy(name, self->name, len);
-        name[len+0] = '_';
-        name[len+1] = 'x' + member;
-        name[len+2] = '\0';
+    if (!self->name.empty()) {
+        char member_name[3] = { '_', char('x' + member), 0 };
+        name = self->name + member_name;
     }
-    else
-        name = NULL;
 
     if (self->vtype == TYPE_VECTOR)
     {
-        m = ir_value_var(name, self->store, TYPE_FLOAT);
-        if (name)
-            mem_d(name);
+        m = new ir_value(move(name), self->store, TYPE_FLOAT);
         if (!m)
-            return NULL;
+            return nullptr;
         m->context = self->context;
 
         self->members[member] = m;
@@ -1149,12 +967,10 @@ ir_value* ir_value_vector_member(ir_value *self, unsigned int member)
     else if (self->vtype == TYPE_FIELD)
     {
         if (self->fieldtype != TYPE_VECTOR)
-            return NULL;
-        m = ir_value_var(name, self->store, TYPE_FIELD);
-        if (name)
-            mem_d(name);
+            return nullptr;
+        m = new ir_value(move(name), self->store, TYPE_FIELD);
         if (!m)
-            return NULL;
+            return nullptr;
         m->fieldtype = TYPE_FLOAT;
         m->context = self->context;
 
@@ -1163,8 +979,8 @@ ir_value* ir_value_vector_member(ir_value *self, unsigned int member)
     }
     else
     {
-        irerror(self->context, "invalid member access on %s", self->name);
-        return NULL;
+        irerror(self->context, "invalid member access on %s", self->name.c_str());
+        return nullptr;
     }
 
     m->memberof = self;
@@ -1178,45 +994,15 @@ static GMQCC_INLINE size_t ir_value_sizeof(const ir_value *self)
     return type_sizeof_[self->vtype];
 }
 
-static ir_value* ir_value_out(ir_function *owner, const char *name, int storetype, int vtype)
+static ir_value* ir_value_out(ir_function *owner, const char *name, store_type storetype, qc_type vtype)
 {
-    ir_value *v = ir_value_var(name, storetype, vtype);
+    ir_value *v = new ir_value(name ? std::string(name) : std::string(), storetype, vtype);
     if (!v)
-        return NULL;
+        return nullptr;
     ir_function_collect_value(owner, v);
     return v;
 }
 
-void ir_value_delete(ir_value* self)
-{
-    size_t i;
-    if (self->name)
-        mem_d((void*)self->name);
-    if (self->hasvalue)
-    {
-        if (self->vtype == TYPE_STRING)
-            mem_d((void*)self->constval.vstring);
-    }
-    if (!(self->flags & IR_FLAG_SPLIT_VECTOR)) {
-        for (i = 0; i < 3; ++i) {
-            if (self->members[i])
-                ir_value_delete(self->members[i]);
-        }
-    }
-    vec_free(self->reads);
-    vec_free(self->writes);
-    vec_free(self->life);
-    mem_d(self);
-}
-
-bool ir_value_set_name(ir_value *self, const char *name)
-{
-    if (self->name)
-        mem_d((void*)self->name);
-    self->name = util_strdup(name);
-    return !!self->name;
-}
-
 bool ir_value_set_float(ir_value *self, float f)
 {
     if (self->vtype != TYPE_FLOAT)
@@ -1275,13 +1061,10 @@ bool ir_value_set_int(ir_value *self, int i)
 
 bool ir_value_lives(ir_value *self, size_t at)
 {
-    size_t i;
-    for (i = 0; i < vec_size(self->life); ++i)
-    {
-        ir_life_entry_t *life = &self->life[i];
-        if (life->start <= at && at <= life->end)
+    for (auto& l : self->life) {
+        if (l.start <= at && at <= l.end)
             return true;
-        if (life->start > at) /* since it's ordered */
+        if (l.start > at) /* since it's ordered */
             return false;
     }
     return false;
@@ -1289,54 +1072,50 @@ bool ir_value_lives(ir_value *self, size_t at)
 
 static bool ir_value_life_insert(ir_value *self, size_t idx, ir_life_entry_t e)
 {
-    size_t k;
-    vec_push(self->life, e);
-    for (k = vec_size(self->life)-1; k > idx; --k)
-        self->life[k] = self->life[k-1];
-    self->life[idx] = e;
+    self->life.insert(self->life.begin() + idx, e);
     return true;
 }
 
 static bool ir_value_life_merge(ir_value *self, size_t s)
 {
     size_t i;
-    const size_t vs = vec_size(self->life);
-    ir_life_entry_t *life = NULL;
-    ir_life_entry_t *before = NULL;
+    const size_t vs = self->life.size();
+    ir_life_entry_t *life_found = nullptr;
+    ir_life_entry_t *before = nullptr;
     ir_life_entry_t new_entry;
 
     /* Find the first range >= s */
     for (i = 0; i < vs; ++i)
     {
-        before = life;
-        life = &self->life[i];
-        if (life->start > s)
+        before = life_found;
+        life_found = &self->life[i];
+        if (life_found->start > s)
             break;
     }
     /* nothing found? append */
     if (i == vs) {
         ir_life_entry_t e;
-        if (life && life->end+1 == s)
+        if (life_found && life_found->end+1 == s)
         {
             /* previous life range can be merged in */
-            life->end++;
+            life_found->end++;
             return true;
         }
-        if (life && life->end >= s)
+        if (life_found && life_found->end >= s)
             return false;
         e.start = e.end = s;
-        vec_push(self->life, e);
+        self->life.emplace_back(e);
         return true;
     }
     /* found */
     if (before)
     {
         if (before->end + 1 == s &&
-            life->start - 1 == s)
+            life_found->start - 1 == s)
         {
             /* merge */
-            before->end = life->end;
-            vec_remove(self->life, i, 1);
+            before->end = life_found->end;
+            self->life.erase(self->life.begin()+i);
             return true;
         }
         if (before->end + 1 == s)
@@ -1350,9 +1129,9 @@ static bool ir_value_life_merge(ir_value *self, size_t s)
             return false;
     }
     /* extend */
-    if (life->start - 1 == s)
+    if (life_found->start - 1 == s)
     {
-        life->start--;
+        life_found->start--;
         return true;
     }
     /* insert a new entry */
@@ -1364,65 +1143,63 @@ static bool ir_value_life_merge_into(ir_value *self, const ir_value *other)
 {
     size_t i, myi;
 
-    if (!vec_size(other->life))
+    if (other->life.empty())
         return true;
 
-    if (!vec_size(self->life)) {
-        size_t count = vec_size(other->life);
-        ir_life_entry_t *life = vec_add(self->life, count);
-        memcpy(life, other->life, count * sizeof(*life));
+    if (self->life.empty()) {
+        self->life = other->life;
         return true;
     }
 
     myi = 0;
-    for (i = 0; i < vec_size(other->life); ++i)
+    for (i = 0; i < other->life.size(); ++i)
     {
-        const ir_life_entry_t *life = &other->life[i];
+        const ir_life_entry_t &otherlife = other->life[i];
         while (true)
         {
             ir_life_entry_t *entry = &self->life[myi];
 
-            if (life->end+1 < entry->start)
+            if (otherlife.end+1 < entry->start)
             {
                 /* adding an interval before entry */
-                if (!ir_value_life_insert(self, myi, *life))
+                if (!ir_value_life_insert(self, myi, otherlife))
                     return false;
                 ++myi;
                 break;
             }
 
-            if (life->start <  entry->start &&
-                life->end+1 >= entry->start)
+            if (otherlife.start <  entry->start &&
+                otherlife.end+1 >= entry->start)
             {
                 /* starts earlier and overlaps */
-                entry->start = life->start;
+                entry->start = otherlife.start;
             }
 
-            if (life->end   >  entry->end &&
-                life->start <= entry->end+1)
+            if (otherlife.end   >  entry->end &&
+                otherlife.start <= entry->end+1)
             {
                 /* ends later and overlaps */
-                entry->end = life->end;
+                entry->end = otherlife.end;
             }
 
             /* see if our change combines it with the next ranges */
-            while (myi+1 < vec_size(self->life) &&
+            while (myi+1 < self->life.size() &&
                    entry->end+1 >= self->life[1+myi].start)
             {
                 /* overlaps with (myi+1) */
                 if (entry->end < self->life[1+myi].end)
                     entry->end = self->life[1+myi].end;
-                vec_remove(self->life, myi+1, 1);
+                self->life.erase(self->life.begin() + (myi + 1));
                 entry = &self->life[myi];
             }
 
             /* see if we're after the entry */
-            if (life->start > entry->end)
+            if (otherlife.start > entry->end)
             {
                 ++myi;
                 /* append if we're at the end */
-                if (myi >= vec_size(self->life)) {
-                    vec_push(self->life, *life);
+                if (myi >= self->life.size()) {
+                    self->life.emplace_back(otherlife);
                     break;
                 }
                 /* otherweise check the next range */
@@ -1443,16 +1220,16 @@ static bool ir_values_overlap(const ir_value *a, const ir_value *b)
      * statement above.
      */
 
-    ir_life_entry_t *la, *lb, *enda, *endb;
+    const ir_life_entry_t *la, *lb, *enda, *endb;
 
     /* first of all, if either has no life range, they cannot clash */
-    if (!vec_size(a->life) || !vec_size(b->life))
+    if (a->life.empty() || b->life.empty())
         return false;
 
-    la = a->life;
-    lb = b->life;
-    enda = la + vec_size(a->life);
-    endb = lb + vec_size(b->life);
+    la = &a->life.front();
+    lb = &b->life.front();
+    enda = &a->life.back() + 1;
+    endb = &b->life.back() + 1;
     while (true)
     {
         /* check if the entries overlap, for that,
@@ -1497,7 +1274,7 @@ static bool ir_check_unreachable(ir_block *self)
     /* The IR should never have to deal with unreachable code */
     if (!self->final/* || OPTS_FLAG(ALLOW_UNREACHABLE_CODE)*/)
         return true;
-    irerror(self->context, "unreachable statement (%s)", self->label);
+    irerror(self->context, "unreachable statement (%s)", self->label.c_str());
     return false;
 }
 
@@ -1511,19 +1288,19 @@ bool ir_block_create_store_op(ir_block *self, lex_ctx_t ctx, int op, ir_value *t
         (op < INSTR_STOREP_F || op > INSTR_STOREP_FNC))
     {
         irerror(self->context, "cannot store to an SSA value");
-        irerror(self->context, "trying to store: %s <- %s", target->name, what->name);
+        irerror(self->context, "trying to store: %s <- %s", target->name.c_str(), what->name.c_str());
         irerror(self->context, "instruction: %s", util_instr_str[op]);
         return false;
     }
 
-    in = ir_instr_new(ctx, self, op);
+    in = new ir_instr(ctx, self, op);
     if (!in)
         return false;
 
     if (!ir_instr_op(in, 0, target, (op < INSTR_STOREP_F || op > INSTR_STOREP_FNC)) ||
         !ir_instr_op(in, 1, what, false))
     {
-        ir_instr_delete(in);
+        delete in;
         return false;
     }
     vec_push(self->instr, in);
@@ -1536,14 +1313,14 @@ bool ir_block_create_state_op(ir_block *self, lex_ctx_t ctx, ir_value *frame, ir
     if (!ir_check_unreachable(self))
         return false;
 
-    in = ir_instr_new(ctx, self, INSTR_STATE);
+    in = new ir_instr(ctx, self, INSTR_STATE);
     if (!in)
         return false;
 
     if (!ir_instr_op(in, 0, frame, false) ||
         !ir_instr_op(in, 1, think, false))
     {
-        ir_instr_delete(in);
+        delete in;
         return false;
     }
     vec_push(self->instr, in);
@@ -1553,7 +1330,7 @@ bool ir_block_create_state_op(ir_block *self, lex_ctx_t ctx, ir_value *frame, ir
 static bool ir_block_create_store(ir_block *self, lex_ctx_t ctx, ir_value *target, ir_value *what)
 {
     int op = 0;
-    int vtype;
+    qc_type vtype;
     if (target->vtype == TYPE_VARIANT)
         vtype = what->vtype;
     else
@@ -1578,7 +1355,7 @@ static bool ir_block_create_store(ir_block *self, lex_ctx_t ctx, ir_value *targe
 bool ir_block_create_storep(ir_block *self, lex_ctx_t ctx, ir_value *target, ir_value *what)
 {
     int op = 0;
-    int vtype;
+    qc_type vtype;
 
     if (target->vtype != TYPE_POINTER)
         return false;
@@ -1606,12 +1383,12 @@ bool ir_block_create_return(ir_block *self, lex_ctx_t ctx, ir_value *v)
     self->final = true;
 
     self->is_return = true;
-    in = ir_instr_new(ctx, self, INSTR_RETURN);
+    in = new ir_instr(ctx, self, INSTR_RETURN);
     if (!in)
         return false;
 
     if (v && !ir_instr_op(in, 0, v, false)) {
-        ir_instr_delete(in);
+        delete in;
         return false;
     }
 
@@ -1626,13 +1403,13 @@ bool ir_block_create_if(ir_block *self, lex_ctx_t ctx, ir_value *v,
     if (!ir_check_unreachable(self))
         return false;
     self->final = true;
-    /*in = ir_instr_new(ctx, self, (v->vtype == TYPE_STRING ? INSTR_IF_S : INSTR_IF_F));*/
-    in = ir_instr_new(ctx, self, VINSTR_COND);
+    /*in = new ir_instr(ctx, self, (v->vtype == TYPE_STRING ? INSTR_IF_S : INSTR_IF_F));*/
+    in = new ir_instr(ctx, self, VINSTR_COND);
     if (!in)
         return false;
 
     if (!ir_instr_op(in, 0, v, false)) {
-        ir_instr_delete(in);
+        delete in;
         return false;
     }
 
@@ -1654,7 +1431,7 @@ bool ir_block_create_jump(ir_block *self, lex_ctx_t ctx, ir_block *to)
     if (!ir_check_unreachable(self))
         return false;
     self->final = true;
-    in = ir_instr_new(ctx, self, VINSTR_JUMP);
+    in = new ir_instr(ctx, self, VINSTR_JUMP);
     if (!in)
         return false;
 
@@ -1672,24 +1449,23 @@ bool ir_block_create_goto(ir_block *self, lex_ctx_t ctx, ir_block *to)
     return ir_block_create_jump(self, ctx, to);
 }
 
-ir_instr* ir_block_create_phi(ir_block *self, lex_ctx_t ctx, const char *label, int ot)
+ir_instr* ir_block_create_phi(ir_block *self, lex_ctx_t ctx, const char *label, qc_type ot)
 {
     ir_value *out;
     ir_instr *in;
     if (!ir_check_unreachable(self))
-        return NULL;
-    in = ir_instr_new(ctx, self, VINSTR_PHI);
+        return nullptr;
+    in = new ir_instr(ctx, self, VINSTR_PHI);
     if (!in)
-        return NULL;
+        return nullptr;
     out = ir_value_out(self->owner, label, store_value, ot);
     if (!out) {
-        ir_instr_delete(in);
-        return NULL;
+        delete in;
+        return nullptr;
     }
     if (!ir_instr_op(in, 0, out, true)) {
-        ir_instr_delete(in);
-        ir_value_delete(out);
-        return NULL;
+        delete in;
+        return nullptr;
     }
     vec_push(self->instr, in);
     return in;
@@ -1704,18 +1480,17 @@ void ir_phi_add(ir_instr* self, ir_block *b, ir_value *v)
 {
     ir_phi_entry_t pe;
 
-    if (!vec_ir_block_find(self->owner->entries, b, NULL)) {
-        /* Must not be possible to cause this, otherwise the AST
-         * is doing something wrong.
-         */
+    if (!vec_ir_block_find(self->owner->entries, b, nullptr)) {
+        // Must not be possible to cause this, otherwise the AST
+        // is doing something wrong.
         irerror(self->context, "Invalid entry block for PHI");
         exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
     }
 
     pe.value = v;
     pe.from = b;
-    vec_push(v->reads, self);
-    vec_push(self->phi, pe);
+    v->reads.push_back(self);
+    self->phi.push_back(pe);
 }
 
 /* call related code */
@@ -1724,33 +1499,32 @@ ir_instr* ir_block_create_call(ir_block *self, lex_ctx_t ctx, const char *label,
     ir_value *out;
     ir_instr *in;
     if (!ir_check_unreachable(self))
-        return NULL;
-    in = ir_instr_new(ctx, self, (noreturn ? VINSTR_NRCALL : INSTR_CALL0));
+        return nullptr;
+    in = new ir_instr(ctx, self, (noreturn ? VINSTR_NRCALL : INSTR_CALL0));
     if (!in)
-        return NULL;
+        return nullptr;
     if (noreturn) {
         self->final = true;
         self->is_return = true;
     }
     out = ir_value_out(self->owner, label, (func->outtype == TYPE_VOID) ? store_return : store_value, func->outtype);
     if (!out) {
-        ir_instr_delete(in);
-        return NULL;
+        delete in;
+        return nullptr;
     }
     if (!ir_instr_op(in, 0, out, true) ||
         !ir_instr_op(in, 1, func, false))
     {
-        ir_instr_delete(in);
-        ir_value_delete(out);
-        return NULL;
+        delete in;
+        return nullptr;
     }
     vec_push(self->instr, in);
     /*
     if (noreturn) {
-        if (!ir_block_create_return(self, ctx, NULL)) {
+        if (!ir_block_create_return(self, ctx, nullptr)) {
             compile_error(ctx, "internal error: failed to generate dummy-return instruction");
-            ir_instr_delete(in);
-            return NULL;
+            delete in;
+            return nullptr;
         }
     }
     */
@@ -1764,8 +1538,8 @@ ir_value* ir_call_value(ir_instr *self)
 
 void ir_call_param(ir_instr* self, ir_value *v)
 {
-    vec_push(self->params, v);
-    vec_push(v->reads, self);
+    self->params.push_back(v);
+    v->reads.push_back(self);
 }
 
 /* binary op related code */
@@ -1774,7 +1548,7 @@ ir_value* ir_block_create_binop(ir_block *self, lex_ctx_t ctx,
                                 const char *label, int opcode,
                                 ir_value *left, ir_value *right)
 {
-    int ot = TYPE_VOID;
+    qc_type ot = TYPE_VOID;
     switch (opcode) {
         case INSTR_ADD_F:
         case INSTR_SUB_F:
@@ -1883,7 +1657,7 @@ ir_value* ir_block_create_binop(ir_block *self, lex_ctx_t ctx,
     };
     if (ot == TYPE_VOID) {
         /* The AST or parser were supposed to check this! */
-        return NULL;
+        return nullptr;
     }
 
     return ir_block_create_general_instr(self, ctx, label, opcode, left, right, ot);
@@ -1893,7 +1667,7 @@ ir_value* ir_block_create_unary(ir_block *self, lex_ctx_t ctx,
                                 const char *label, int opcode,
                                 ir_value *operand)
 {
-    int ot = TYPE_FLOAT;
+    qc_type ot = TYPE_FLOAT;
     switch (opcode) {
         case INSTR_NOT_F:
         case INSTR_NOT_V:
@@ -1909,9 +1683,9 @@ ir_value* ir_block_create_unary(ir_block *self, lex_ctx_t ctx,
          * the operand for 0 already exists so we just source it from here.
          */
         case VINSTR_NEG_F:
-            return ir_block_create_general_instr(self, ctx, label, INSTR_SUB_F, NULL, operand, ot);
+            return ir_block_create_general_instr(self, ctx, label, INSTR_SUB_F, nullptr, operand, ot);
         case VINSTR_NEG_V:
-            return ir_block_create_general_instr(self, ctx, label, INSTR_SUB_V, NULL, operand, TYPE_VECTOR);
+            return ir_block_create_general_instr(self, ctx, label, INSTR_SUB_V, nullptr, operand, TYPE_VECTOR);
 
         default:
             ot = operand->vtype;
@@ -1919,27 +1693,26 @@ ir_value* ir_block_create_unary(ir_block *self, lex_ctx_t ctx,
     };
     if (ot == TYPE_VOID) {
         /* The AST or parser were supposed to check this! */
-        return NULL;
+        return nullptr;
     }
 
-    /* let's use the general instruction creator and pass NULL for OPB */
-    return ir_block_create_general_instr(self, ctx, label, opcode, operand, NULL, ot);
+    /* let's use the general instruction creator and pass nullptr for OPB */
+    return ir_block_create_general_instr(self, ctx, label, opcode, operand, nullptr, ot);
 }
 
 static ir_value* ir_block_create_general_instr(ir_block *self, lex_ctx_t ctx, const char *label,
-                                        int op, ir_value *a, ir_value *b, int outype)
+                                        int op, ir_value *a, ir_value *b, qc_type outype)
 {
     ir_instr *instr;
     ir_value *out;
 
     out = ir_value_out(self->owner, label, store_value, outype);
     if (!out)
-        return NULL;
+        return nullptr;
 
-    instr = ir_instr_new(ctx, self, op);
+    instr = new ir_instr(ctx, self, op);
     if (!instr) {
-        ir_value_delete(out);
-        return NULL;
+        return nullptr;
     }
 
     if (!ir_instr_op(instr, 0, out, true) ||
@@ -1953,9 +1726,8 @@ static ir_value* ir_block_create_general_instr(ir_block *self, lex_ctx_t ctx, co
 
     return out;
 on_error:
-    ir_instr_delete(instr);
-    ir_value_delete(out);
-    return NULL;
+    delete instr;
+    return nullptr;
 }
 
 ir_value* ir_block_create_fieldaddress(ir_block *self, lex_ctx_t ctx, const char *label, ir_value *ent, ir_value *field)
@@ -1964,25 +1736,25 @@ ir_value* ir_block_create_fieldaddress(ir_block *self, lex_ctx_t ctx, const char
 
     /* Support for various pointer types todo if so desired */
     if (ent->vtype != TYPE_ENTITY)
-        return NULL;
+        return nullptr;
 
     if (field->vtype != TYPE_FIELD)
-        return NULL;
+        return nullptr;
 
     v = ir_block_create_general_instr(self, ctx, label, INSTR_ADDRESS, ent, field, TYPE_POINTER);
     v->fieldtype = field->fieldtype;
     return v;
 }
 
-ir_value* ir_block_create_load_from_ent(ir_block *self, lex_ctx_t ctx, const char *label, ir_value *ent, ir_value *field, int outype)
+ir_value* ir_block_create_load_from_ent(ir_block *self, lex_ctx_t ctx, const char *label, ir_value *ent, ir_value *field, qc_type outype)
 {
     int op;
     if (ent->vtype != TYPE_ENTITY)
-        return NULL;
+        return nullptr;
 
     /* at some point we could redirect for TYPE_POINTER... but that could lead to carelessness */
     if (field->vtype != TYPE_FIELD)
-        return NULL;
+        return nullptr;
 
     switch (outype)
     {
@@ -1998,7 +1770,7 @@ ir_value* ir_block_create_load_from_ent(ir_block *self, lex_ctx_t ctx, const cha
 #endif
         default:
             irerror(self->context, "invalid type for ir_block_create_load_from_ent: %s", type_name[outype]);
-            return NULL;
+            return nullptr;
     }
 
     return ir_block_create_general_instr(self, ctx, label, op, ent, field, outype);
@@ -2011,19 +1783,15 @@ ir_value* ir_block_create_load_from_ent(ir_block *self, lex_ctx_t ctx, const cha
 static bool ir_block_naive_phi(ir_block *self);
 bool ir_function_naive_phi(ir_function *self)
 {
-    size_t i;
-
-    for (i = 0; i < vec_size(self->blocks); ++i)
-    {
-        if (!ir_block_naive_phi(self->blocks[i]))
+    for (auto& b : self->blocks)
+        if (!ir_block_naive_phi(b.get()))
             return false;
-    }
     return true;
 }
 
 static bool ir_block_naive_phi(ir_block *self)
 {
-    size_t i, p; /*, w;*/
+    size_t i;
     /* FIXME: optionally, create_phi can add the phis
      * to a list so we don't need to loop through blocks
      * - anyway: "don't optimize YET"
@@ -2037,21 +1805,14 @@ static bool ir_block_naive_phi(ir_block *self)
         vec_remove(self->instr, i, 1);
         --i; /* NOTE: i+1 below */
 
-        for (p = 0; p < vec_size(instr->phi); ++p)
-        {
-            ir_value *v = instr->phi[p].value;
-            ir_block *b = instr->phi[p].from;
-
-            if (v->store == store_value &&
-                vec_size(v->reads) == 1 &&
-                vec_size(v->writes) == 1)
-            {
+        for (auto &it : instr->phi) {
+            ir_value *v = it.value;
+            ir_block *b = it.from;
+            if (v->store == store_value && v->reads.size() == 1 && v->writes.size() == 1) {
                 /* replace the value */
                 if (!ir_instr_op(v->writes[0], 0, instr->_ops[0], true))
                     return false;
-            }
-            else
-            {
+            } else {
                 /* force a move instruction */
                 ir_instr *prevjump = vec_last(b->instr);
                 vec_pop(b->instr);
@@ -2064,7 +1825,7 @@ static bool ir_block_naive_phi(ir_block *self)
                 b->final = true;
             }
         }
-        ir_instr_delete(instr);
+        delete instr;
     }
     return true;
 }
@@ -2098,18 +1859,19 @@ static void ir_block_enumerate(ir_block *self, size_t *_eid)
  */
 void ir_function_enumerate(ir_function *self)
 {
-    size_t i;
     size_t instruction_id = 0;
-    for (i = 0; i < vec_size(self->blocks); ++i)
+    size_t block_eid = 0;
+    for (auto& block : self->blocks)
     {
         /* each block now gets an additional "entry" instruction id
          * we can use to avoid point-life issues
          */
-        self->blocks[i]->entry_id = instruction_id;
+        block->entry_id = instruction_id;
+        block->eid      = block_eid;
         ++instruction_id;
+        ++block_eid;
 
-        self->blocks[i]->eid = i;
-        ir_block_enumerate(self->blocks[i], &instruction_id);
+        ir_block_enumerate(block.get(), &instruction_id);
     }
 }
 
@@ -2118,12 +1880,12 @@ void ir_function_enumerate(ir_function *self)
  * we can allocate their global-positions.
  * This is the counterpart to register-allocation in register machines.
  */
-typedef struct {
+struct function_allocator {
     ir_value **locals;
-    size_t    *sizes;
-    size_t    *positions;
-    bool      *unique;
-} function_allocator;
+    size_t *sizes;
+    size_t *positions;
+    bool *unique;
+};
 
 static bool function_allocator_alloc(function_allocator *alloc, ir_value *var)
 {
@@ -2132,7 +1894,7 @@ static bool function_allocator_alloc(function_allocator *alloc, ir_value *var)
 
     var->code.local = vec_size(alloc->locals);
 
-    slot = ir_value_var("reg", store_global, var->vtype);
+    slot = new ir_value("reg", store_global, var->vtype);
     if (!slot)
         return false;
 
@@ -2146,7 +1908,7 @@ static bool function_allocator_alloc(function_allocator *alloc, ir_value *var)
     return true;
 
 localerror:
-    ir_value_delete(slot);
+    delete slot;
     return false;
 }
 
@@ -2197,30 +1959,28 @@ static bool ir_function_allocator_assign(ir_function *self, function_allocator *
 
 bool ir_function_allocate_locals(ir_function *self)
 {
-    size_t i;
     bool   retval = true;
     size_t pos;
     bool   opt_gt = OPTS_OPTIMIZATION(OPTIM_GLOBAL_TEMPS);
 
-    ir_value *v;
-
     function_allocator lockalloc, globalloc;
 
-    if (!vec_size(self->locals) && !vec_size(self->values))
+    if (self->locals.empty() && self->values.empty())
         return true;
 
-    globalloc.locals    = NULL;
-    globalloc.sizes     = NULL;
-    globalloc.positions = NULL;
-    globalloc.unique    = NULL;
-    lockalloc.locals    = NULL;
-    lockalloc.sizes     = NULL;
-    lockalloc.positions = NULL;
-    lockalloc.unique    = NULL;
+    globalloc.locals    = nullptr;
+    globalloc.sizes     = nullptr;
+    globalloc.positions = nullptr;
+    globalloc.unique    = nullptr;
+    lockalloc.locals    = nullptr;
+    lockalloc.sizes     = nullptr;
+    lockalloc.positions = nullptr;
+    lockalloc.unique    = nullptr;
 
-    for (i = 0; i < vec_size(self->locals); ++i)
+    size_t i;
+    for (i = 0; i < self->locals.size(); ++i)
     {
-        v = self->locals[i];
+        ir_value *v = self->locals[i].get();
         if ((self->flags & IR_FLAG_MASK_NO_LOCAL_TEMPS) || !OPTS_OPTIMIZATION(OPTIM_LOCAL_TEMPS)) {
             v->locked      = true;
             v->unique_life = true;
@@ -2232,21 +1992,21 @@ bool ir_function_allocate_locals(ir_function *self)
         if (!function_allocator_alloc((v->locked || !opt_gt ? &lockalloc : &globalloc), v))
             goto error;
     }
-    for (; i < vec_size(self->locals); ++i)
+    for (; i < self->locals.size(); ++i)
     {
-        v = self->locals[i];
-        if (!vec_size(v->life))
+        ir_value *v = self->locals[i].get();
+        if (v->life.empty())
             continue;
         if (!ir_function_allocator_assign(self, (v->locked || !opt_gt ? &lockalloc : &globalloc), v))
             goto error;
     }
 
     /* Allocate a slot for any value that still exists */
-    for (i = 0; i < vec_size(self->values); ++i)
+    for (i = 0; i < self->values.size(); ++i)
     {
-        v = self->values[i];
+        ir_value *v = self->values[i].get();
 
-        if (!vec_size(v->life))
+        if (v->life.empty())
             continue;
 
         /* CALL optimization:
@@ -2254,16 +2014,16 @@ bool ir_function_allocate_locals(ir_function *self)
          * and it's not "locked", write it to the OFS_PARM directly.
          */
         if (OPTS_OPTIMIZATION(OPTIM_CALL_STORES) && !v->locked && !v->unique_life) {
-            if (vec_size(v->reads) == 1 && vec_size(v->writes) == 1 &&
+            if (v->reads.size() == 1 && v->writes.size() == 1 &&
                 (v->reads[0]->opcode == VINSTR_NRCALL ||
                  (v->reads[0]->opcode >= INSTR_CALL0 && v->reads[0]->opcode <= INSTR_CALL8)
                 )
                )
             {
-                size_t    param;
+                size_t param;
                 ir_instr *call = v->reads[0];
                 if (!vec_ir_value_find(call->params, v, &param)) {
-                    irerror(call->context, "internal error: unlocked parameter %s not found", v->name);
+                    irerror(call->context, "internal error: unlocked parameter %s not found", v->name.c_str());
                     goto error;
                 }
                 ++opts_optimizationcount[OPTIM_CALL_STORES];
@@ -2271,11 +2031,11 @@ bool ir_function_allocate_locals(ir_function *self)
                 if (param < 8)
                     ir_value_code_setaddr(v, OFS_PARM0 + 3*param);
                 else {
-                    size_t nprotos = vec_size(self->owner->extparam_protos);
+                    size_t nprotos = self->owner->extparam_protos.size();
                     ir_value *ep;
                     param -= 8;
                     if (nprotos > param)
-                        ep = self->owner->extparam_protos[param];
+                        ep = self->owner->extparam_protos[param].get();
                     else
                     {
                         ep = ir_gen_extparam_proto(self->owner);
@@ -2287,8 +2047,7 @@ bool ir_function_allocate_locals(ir_function *self)
                 }
                 continue;
             }
-            if (vec_size(v->writes) == 1 && v->writes[0]->opcode == INSTR_CALL0)
-            {
+            if (v->writes.size() == 1 && v->writes[0]->opcode == INSTR_CALL0) {
                 v->store = store_return;
                 if (v->members[0]) v->members[0]->store = store_return;
                 if (v->members[1]) v->members[1]->store = store_return;
@@ -2329,20 +2088,18 @@ bool ir_function_allocate_locals(ir_function *self)
     }
 
     /* Locals need to know their new position */
-    for (i = 0; i < vec_size(self->locals); ++i) {
-        v = self->locals[i];
-        if (v->locked || !opt_gt)
-            v->code.local = lockalloc.positions[v->code.local];
+    for (auto& local : self->locals) {
+        if (local->locked || !opt_gt)
+            local->code.local = lockalloc.positions[local->code.local];
         else
-            v->code.local = globalloc.positions[v->code.local];
+            local->code.local = globalloc.positions[local->code.local];
     }
     /* Take over the actual slot positions on values */
-    for (i = 0; i < vec_size(self->values); ++i) {
-        v = self->values[i];
-        if (v->locked || !opt_gt)
-            v->code.local = lockalloc.positions[v->code.local];
+    for (auto& value : self->values) {
+        if (value->locked || !opt_gt)
+            value->code.local = lockalloc.positions[value->code.local];
         else
-            v->code.local = globalloc.positions[v->code.local];
+            value->code.local = globalloc.positions[value->code.local];
     }
 
     goto cleanup;
@@ -2351,9 +2108,9 @@ error:
     retval = false;
 cleanup:
     for (i = 0; i < vec_size(lockalloc.locals); ++i)
-        ir_value_delete(lockalloc.locals[i]);
+        delete lockalloc.locals[i];
     for (i = 0; i < vec_size(globalloc.locals); ++i)
-        ir_value_delete(globalloc.locals[i]);
+        delete globalloc.locals[i];
     vec_free(globalloc.unique);
     vec_free(globalloc.locals);
     vec_free(globalloc.sizes);
@@ -2404,29 +2161,21 @@ static void ir_op_read_write(int op, size_t *read, size_t *write)
     };
 }
 
-static bool ir_block_living_add_instr(ir_block *self, size_t eid)
-{
-    size_t       i;
-    const size_t vs = vec_size(self->living);
-    bool         changed = false;
-    for (i = 0; i != vs; ++i)
-    {
-        if (ir_value_life_merge(self->living[i], eid))
+static bool ir_block_living_add_instr(ir_block *self, size_t eid) {
+    bool changed = false;
+    for (auto &it : self->living)
+        if (ir_value_life_merge(it, eid))
             changed = true;
-    }
     return changed;
 }
 
-static bool ir_block_living_lock(ir_block *self)
-{
-    size_t i;
+static bool ir_block_living_lock(ir_block *self) {
     bool changed = false;
-    for (i = 0; i != vec_size(self->living); ++i)
-    {
-        if (!self->living[i]->locked) {
-            self->living[i]->locked = true;
-            changed = true;
-        }
+    for (auto &it : self->living) {
+        if (it->locked)
+            continue;
+        it->locked = true;
+        changed = true;
     }
     return changed;
 }
@@ -2435,24 +2184,18 @@ static bool ir_block_life_propagate(ir_block *self, bool *changed)
 {
     ir_instr *instr;
     ir_value *value;
-    size_t i, o, p, mem, cnt;
-    /* bitmasks which operands are read from or written to */
+    size_t i, o, p, mem;
+    // bitmasks which operands are read from or written to
     size_t read, write;
-    char dbg_ind[16];
-    dbg_ind[0] = '#';
-    dbg_ind[1] = '0';
-    (void)dbg_ind;
 
-    vec_free(self->living);
+    self->living.clear();
 
     p = vec_size(self->exits);
     for (i = 0; i < p; ++i) {
         ir_block *prev = self->exits[i];
-        cnt = vec_size(prev->living);
-        for (o = 0; o < cnt; ++o) {
-            if (!vec_ir_value_find(self->living, prev->living[o], NULL))
-                vec_push(self->living, prev->living[o]);
-        }
+        for (auto &it : prev->living)
+            if (!vec_ir_value_find(self->living, it, nullptr))
+                self->living.push_back(it);
     }
 
     i = vec_size(self->instr);
@@ -2509,28 +2252,28 @@ static bool ir_block_life_propagate(ir_block *self, bool *changed)
                      */
                     if (ir_value_life_merge(value, instr->eid))
                         *changed = true;
-                    /* Then remove */
-                    vec_remove(self->living, idx, 1);
+                    // Then remove
+                    self->living.erase(self->living.begin() + idx);
                 }
                 /* Removing a vector removes all members */
                 for (mem = 0; mem < 3; ++mem) {
                     if (value->members[mem] && vec_ir_value_find(self->living, value->members[mem], &idx)) {
                         if (ir_value_life_merge(value->members[mem], instr->eid))
                             *changed = true;
-                        vec_remove(self->living, idx, 1);
+                        self->living.erase(self->living.begin() + idx);
                     }
                 }
                 /* Removing the last member removes the vector */
                 if (value->memberof) {
                     value = value->memberof;
                     for (mem = 0; mem < 3; ++mem) {
-                        if (value->members[mem] && vec_ir_value_find(self->living, value->members[mem], NULL))
+                        if (value->members[mem] && vec_ir_value_find(self->living, value->members[mem], nullptr))
                             break;
                     }
                     if (mem == 3 && vec_ir_value_find(self->living, value, &idx)) {
                         if (ir_value_life_merge(value, instr->eid))
                             *changed = true;
-                        vec_remove(self->living, idx, 1);
+                        self->living.erase(self->living.begin() + idx);
                     }
                 }
             }
@@ -2588,29 +2331,28 @@ static bool ir_block_life_propagate(ir_block *self, bool *changed)
             /* read operands */
             if (read & (1<<o))
             {
-                if (!vec_ir_value_find(self->living, value, NULL))
-                    vec_push(self->living, value);
+                if (!vec_ir_value_find(self->living, value, nullptr))
+                    self->living.push_back(value);
                 /* reading adds the full vector */
-                if (value->memberof && !vec_ir_value_find(self->living, value->memberof, NULL))
-                    vec_push(self->living, value->memberof);
+                if (value->memberof && !vec_ir_value_find(self->living, value->memberof, nullptr))
+                    self->living.push_back(value->memberof);
                 for (mem = 0; mem < 3; ++mem) {
-                    if (value->members[mem] && !vec_ir_value_find(self->living, value->members[mem], NULL))
-                        vec_push(self->living, value->members[mem]);
+                    if (value->members[mem] && !vec_ir_value_find(self->living, value->members[mem], nullptr))
+                        self->living.push_back(value->members[mem]);
                 }
             }
         }
         /* PHI operands are always read operands */
-        for (p = 0; p < vec_size(instr->phi); ++p)
-        {
-            value = instr->phi[p].value;
-            if (!vec_ir_value_find(self->living, value, NULL))
-                vec_push(self->living, value);
+        for (auto &it : instr->phi) {
+            value = it.value;
+            if (!vec_ir_value_find(self->living, value, nullptr))
+                self->living.push_back(value);
             /* reading adds the full vector */
-            if (value->memberof && !vec_ir_value_find(self->living, value->memberof, NULL))
-                vec_push(self->living, value->memberof);
+            if (value->memberof && !vec_ir_value_find(self->living, value->memberof, nullptr))
+                self->living.push_back(value->memberof);
             for (mem = 0; mem < 3; ++mem) {
-                if (value->members[mem] && !vec_ir_value_find(self->living, value->members[mem], NULL))
-                    vec_push(self->living, value->members[mem]);
+                if (value->members[mem] && !vec_ir_value_find(self->living, value->members[mem], nullptr))
+                    self->living.push_back(value->members[mem]);
             }
         }
 
@@ -2620,17 +2362,16 @@ static bool ir_block_life_propagate(ir_block *self, bool *changed)
                 *changed = true;
         }
         /* call params are read operands too */
-        for (p = 0; p < vec_size(instr->params); ++p)
-        {
-            value = instr->params[p];
-            if (!vec_ir_value_find(self->living, value, NULL))
-                vec_push(self->living, value);
+        for (auto &it : instr->params) {
+            value = it;
+            if (!vec_ir_value_find(self->living, value, nullptr))
+                self->living.push_back(value);
             /* reading adds the full vector */
-            if (value->memberof && !vec_ir_value_find(self->living, value->memberof, NULL))
-                vec_push(self->living, value->memberof);
+            if (value->memberof && !vec_ir_value_find(self->living, value->memberof, nullptr))
+                self->living.push_back(value->memberof);
             for (mem = 0; mem < 3; ++mem) {
-                if (value->members[mem] && !vec_ir_value_find(self->living, value->members[mem], NULL))
-                    vec_push(self->living, value->members[mem]);
+                if (value->members[mem] && !vec_ir_value_find(self->living, value->members[mem], nullptr))
+                    self->living.push_back(value->members[mem]);
             }
         }
 
@@ -2647,42 +2388,39 @@ static bool ir_block_life_propagate(ir_block *self, bool *changed)
 
 bool ir_function_calculate_liferanges(ir_function *self)
 {
-    size_t i, s;
-    bool changed;
-
     /* parameters live at 0 */
-    for (i = 0; i < vec_size(self->params); ++i)
-        if (!ir_value_life_merge(self->locals[i], 0))
+    for (size_t i = 0; i < vec_size(self->params); ++i)
+        if (!ir_value_life_merge(self->locals[i].get(), 0))
             compile_error(self->context, "internal error: failed value-life merging");
 
+    bool changed;
     do {
         self->run_id++;
         changed = false;
-        i = vec_size(self->blocks);
-        while (i--) {
-            ir_block_life_propagate(self->blocks[i], &changed);
-        }
+        for (auto i = self->blocks.rbegin(); i != self->blocks.rend(); ++i)
+            ir_block_life_propagate(i->get(), &changed);
     } while (changed);
 
-    if (vec_size(self->blocks)) {
-        ir_block *block = self->blocks[0];
-        for (i = 0; i < vec_size(block->living); ++i) {
-            ir_value *v = block->living[i];
+    if (self->blocks.size()) {
+        ir_block *block = self->blocks[0].get();
+        for (auto &it : block->living) {
+            ir_value *v = it;
             if (v->store != store_local)
                 continue;
             if (v->vtype == TYPE_VECTOR)
                 continue;
             self->flags |= IR_FLAG_HAS_UNINITIALIZED;
             /* find the instruction reading from it */
-            for (s = 0; s < vec_size(v->reads); ++s) {
+            size_t s = 0;
+            for (; s < v->reads.size(); ++s) {
                 if (v->reads[s]->eid == v->life[0].end)
                     break;
             }
-            if (s < vec_size(v->reads)) {
+            if (s < v->reads.size()) {
                 if (irwarning(v->context, WARN_USED_UNINITIALIZED,
                               "variable `%s` may be used uninitialized in this function\n"
                               " -> %s:%i",
-                              v->name,
+                              v->name.c_str(),
                               v->reads[s]->context.file, v->reads[s]->context.line)
                    )
                 {
@@ -2692,15 +2430,15 @@ bool ir_function_calculate_liferanges(ir_function *self)
             }
             if (v->memberof) {
                 ir_value *vec = v->memberof;
-                for (s = 0; s < vec_size(vec->reads); ++s) {
+                for (s = 0; s < vec->reads.size(); ++s) {
                     if (vec->reads[s]->eid == v->life[0].end)
                         break;
                 }
-                if (s < vec_size(vec->reads)) {
+                if (s < vec->reads.size()) {
                     if (irwarning(v->context, WARN_USED_UNINITIALIZED,
                                   "variable `%s` may be used uninitialized in this function\n"
                                   " -> %s:%i",
-                                  v->name,
+                                  v->name.c_str(),
                                   vec->reads[s]->context.file, vec->reads[s]->context.line)
                        )
                     {
@@ -2710,7 +2448,7 @@ bool ir_function_calculate_liferanges(ir_function *self)
                 }
             }
             if (irwarning(v->context, WARN_USED_UNINITIALIZED,
-                          "variable `%s` may be used uninitialized in this function", v->name))
+                          "variable `%s` may be used uninitialized in this function", v->name.c_str()))
             {
                 return false;
             }
@@ -2742,25 +2480,25 @@ static bool gen_global_field(code_t *code, ir_value *global)
     {
         ir_value *fld = global->constval.vpointer;
         if (!fld) {
-            irerror(global->context, "Invalid field constant with no field: %s", global->name);
+            irerror(global->context, "Invalid field constant with no field: %s", global->name.c_str());
             return false;
         }
 
         /* copy the field's value */
-        ir_value_code_setaddr(global, vec_size(code->globals));
-        vec_push(code->globals, fld->code.fieldaddr);
+        ir_value_code_setaddr(global, code->globals.size());
+        code->globals.push_back(fld->code.fieldaddr);
         if (global->fieldtype == TYPE_VECTOR) {
-            vec_push(code->globals, fld->code.fieldaddr+1);
-            vec_push(code->globals, fld->code.fieldaddr+2);
+            code->globals.push_back(fld->code.fieldaddr+1);
+            code->globals.push_back(fld->code.fieldaddr+2);
         }
     }
     else
     {
-        ir_value_code_setaddr(global, vec_size(code->globals));
-        vec_push(code->globals, 0);
+        ir_value_code_setaddr(global, code->globals.size());
+        code->globals.push_back(0);
         if (global->fieldtype == TYPE_VECTOR) {
-            vec_push(code->globals, 0);
-            vec_push(code->globals, 0);
+            code->globals.push_back(0);
+            code->globals.push_back(0);
         }
     }
     if (global->code.globaladdr < 0)
@@ -2774,8 +2512,8 @@ static bool gen_global_pointer(code_t *code, ir_value *global)
     {
         ir_value *target = global->constval.vpointer;
         if (!target) {
-            irerror(global->context, "Invalid pointer constant: %s", global->name);
-            /* NULL pointers are pointing to the NULL constant, which also
+            irerror(global->context, "Invalid pointer constant: %s", global->name.c_str());
+            /* nullptr pointers are pointing to the nullptr constant, which also
              * sits at address 0, but still has an ir_value for itself.
              */
             return false;
@@ -2794,13 +2532,13 @@ static bool gen_global_pointer(code_t *code, ir_value *global)
             return false;
         }
 
-        ir_value_code_setaddr(global, vec_size(code->globals));
-        vec_push(code->globals, target->code.globaladdr);
+        ir_value_code_setaddr(global, code->globals.size());
+        code->globals.push_back(target->code.globaladdr);
     }
     else
     {
-        ir_value_code_setaddr(global, vec_size(code->globals));
-        vec_push(code->globals, 0);
+        ir_value_code_setaddr(global, code->globals.size());
+        code->globals.push_back(0);
     }
     if (global->code.globaladdr < 0)
         return false;
@@ -2819,7 +2557,7 @@ static bool gen_blocks_recursive(code_t *code, ir_function *func, ir_block *bloc
     int       j;
 
     block->generated = true;
-    block->code_start = vec_size(code->statements);
+    block->code_start = code->statements.size();
     for (i = 0; i < vec_size(block->instr); ++i)
     {
         instr = block->instr[i];
@@ -2839,7 +2577,7 @@ static bool gen_blocks_recursive(code_t *code, ir_function *func, ir_block *bloc
 
             /* otherwise we generate a jump instruction */
             stmt.opcode = INSTR_GOTO;
-            stmt.o1.s1 = (target->code_start) - vec_size(code->statements);
+            stmt.o1.s1 = target->code_start - code->statements.size();
             stmt.o2.s1 = 0;
             stmt.o3.s1 = 0;
             if (stmt.o1.s1 != 1)
@@ -3023,13 +2761,13 @@ static bool gen_blocks_recursive(code_t *code, ir_function *func, ir_block *bloc
 
             if (ontrue->generated) {
                 stmt.opcode = INSTR_IF;
-                stmt.o2.s1 = (ontrue->code_start) - vec_size(code->statements);
+                stmt.o2.s1 = ontrue->code_start - code->statements.size();
                 if (stmt.o2.s1 != 1)
                     code_push_statement(code, &stmt, instr->context);
             }
             if (onfalse->generated) {
                 stmt.opcode = INSTR_IFNOT;
-                stmt.o2.s1 = (onfalse->code_start) - vec_size(code->statements);
+                stmt.o2.s1 = onfalse->code_start - code->statements.size();
                 if (stmt.o2.s1 != 1)
                     code_push_statement(code, &stmt, instr->context);
             }
@@ -3050,24 +2788,24 @@ static bool gen_blocks_recursive(code_t *code, ir_function *func, ir_block *bloc
                 onfalse = ontrue;
                 ontrue = tmp;
             }
-            stidx = vec_size(code->statements);
+            stidx = code->statements.size();
             code_push_statement(code, &stmt, instr->context);
             /* on false we jump, so add ontrue-path */
             if (!gen_blocks_recursive(code, func, ontrue))
                 return false;
             /* fixup the jump address */
-            code->statements[stidx].o2.s1 = vec_size(code->statements) - stidx;
+            code->statements[stidx].o2.s1 = code->statements.size() - stidx;
             /* generate onfalse path */
             if (onfalse->generated) {
                 /* fixup the jump address */
-                code->statements[stidx].o2.s1 = (onfalse->code_start) - (stidx);
-                if (stidx+2 == vec_size(code->statements) && code->statements[stidx].o2.s1 == 1) {
+                code->statements[stidx].o2.s1 = onfalse->code_start - stidx;
+                if (stidx+2 == code->statements.size() && code->statements[stidx].o2.s1 == 1) {
                     code->statements[stidx] = code->statements[stidx+1];
                     if (code->statements[stidx].o1.s1 < 0)
                         code->statements[stidx].o1.s1++;
                     code_pop_statement(code);
                 }
-                stmt.opcode = vec_last(code->statements).opcode;
+                stmt.opcode = code->statements.back().opcode;
                 if (stmt.opcode == INSTR_GOTO ||
                     stmt.opcode == INSTR_IF ||
                     stmt.opcode == INSTR_IFNOT ||
@@ -3079,14 +2817,14 @@ static bool gen_blocks_recursive(code_t *code, ir_function *func, ir_block *bloc
                 }
                 /* may have been generated in the previous recursive call */
                 stmt.opcode = INSTR_GOTO;
-                stmt.o1.s1 = (onfalse->code_start) - vec_size(code->statements);
+                stmt.o1.s1 = onfalse->code_start - code->statements.size();
                 stmt.o2.s1 = 0;
                 stmt.o3.s1 = 0;
                 if (stmt.o1.s1 != 1)
                     code_push_statement(code, &stmt, instr->context);
                 return true;
             }
-            else if (stidx+2 == vec_size(code->statements) && code->statements[stidx].o2.s1 == 1) {
+            else if (stidx+2 == code->statements.size() && code->statements[stidx].o2.s1 == 1) {
                 code->statements[stidx] = code->statements[stidx+1];
                 if (code->statements[stidx].o1.s1 < 0)
                     code->statements[stidx].o1.s1++;
@@ -3102,7 +2840,7 @@ static bool gen_blocks_recursive(code_t *code, ir_function *func, ir_block *bloc
             size_t p, first;
             ir_value *retvalue;
 
-            first = vec_size(instr->params);
+            first = instr->params.size();
             if (first > 8)
                 first = 8;
             for (p = 0; p < first; ++p)
@@ -3139,7 +2877,7 @@ static bool gen_blocks_recursive(code_t *code, ir_function *func, ir_block *bloc
                     code_push_statement(code, &stmt, instr->context);
             }
             /* Now handle extparams */
-            first = vec_size(instr->params);
+            first = instr->params.size();
             for (; p < first; ++p)
             {
                 ir_builder *ir = func->owner;
@@ -3149,7 +2887,7 @@ static bool gen_blocks_recursive(code_t *code, ir_function *func, ir_block *bloc
                 if (param->callparam)
                     continue;
 
-                if (p-8 >= vec_size(ir->extparams))
+                if (p-8 >= ir->extparams.size())
                     ir_gen_extparam(ir);
 
                 targetparam = ir->extparams[p-8];
@@ -3181,7 +2919,7 @@ static bool gen_blocks_recursive(code_t *code, ir_function *func, ir_block *bloc
                     code_push_statement(code, &stmt, instr->context);
             }
 
-            stmt.opcode = INSTR_CALL0 + vec_size(instr->params);
+            stmt.opcode = INSTR_CALL0 + instr->params.size();
             if (stmt.opcode > INSTR_CALL8)
                 stmt.opcode = INSTR_CALL8;
             stmt.o1.u1 = ir_value_code_addr(instr->_ops[1]);
@@ -3191,7 +2929,7 @@ static bool gen_blocks_recursive(code_t *code, ir_function *func, ir_block *bloc
 
             retvalue = instr->_ops[0];
             if (retvalue && retvalue->store != store_return &&
-                (retvalue->store == store_global || vec_size(retvalue->life)))
+                (retvalue->store == store_global || retvalue->life.size()))
             {
                 /* not to be kept in OFS_RETURN */
                 if (retvalue->vtype == TYPE_FIELD && OPTS_FLAG(ADJUST_VECTOR_FIELDS))
@@ -3269,22 +3007,22 @@ static bool gen_function_code(code_t *code, ir_function *self)
     /* Starting from entry point, we generate blocks "as they come"
      * for now. Dead blocks will not be translated obviously.
      */
-    if (!vec_size(self->blocks)) {
-        irerror(self->context, "Function '%s' declared without body.", self->name);
+    if (self->blocks.empty()) {
+        irerror(self->context, "Function '%s' declared without body.", self->name.c_str());
         return false;
     }
 
-    block = self->blocks[0];
+    block = self->blocks[0].get();
     if (block->generated)
         return true;
 
     if (!gen_blocks_recursive(code, self, block)) {
-        irerror(self->context, "failed to generate blocks for '%s'", self->name);
+        irerror(self->context, "failed to generate blocks for '%s'", self->name.c_str());
         return false;
     }
 
     /* code_write and qcvm -disasm need to know that the function ends here */
-    retst = &vec_last(code->statements);
+    retst = &code->statements.back();
     if (OPTS_OPTIMIZATION(OPTIM_VOID_RETURN) &&
         self->outtype == TYPE_VOID &&
         retst->opcode == INSTR_RETURN &&
@@ -3299,8 +3037,8 @@ static bool gen_function_code(code_t *code, ir_function *self)
         stmt.o1.u1  = 0;
         stmt.o2.u1  = 0;
         stmt.o3.u1  = 0;
-        last.line   = vec_last(code->linenums);
-        last.column = vec_last(code->columnnums);
+        last.line   = code->linenums.back();
+        last.column = code->columnnums.back();
 
         code_push_statement(code, &stmt, last);
     }
@@ -3312,17 +3050,16 @@ static qcint_t ir_builder_filestring(ir_builder *ir, const char *filename)
     /* NOTE: filename pointers are copied, we never strdup them,
      * thus we can use pointer-comparison to find the string.
      */
-    size_t i;
     qcint_t  str;
 
-    for (i = 0; i < vec_size(ir->filenames); ++i) {
-        if (ir->filenames[i] == filename)
-            return ir->filestrings[i];
+    for (size_t i = 0; i != ir->filenames.size(); ++i) {
+        if (!strcmp(ir->filenames[i], filename))
+            return i;
     }
 
-    str = code_genstring(ir->code, filename);
-    vec_push(ir->filenames, filename);
-    vec_push(ir->filestrings, str);
+    str = code_genstring(ir->code.get(), filename);
+    ir->filenames.push_back(filename);
+    ir->filestrings.push_back(str);
     return str;
 }
 
@@ -3333,22 +3070,20 @@ static bool gen_global_function(ir_builder *ir, ir_value *global)
 
     size_t i;
 
-    if (!global->hasvalue || (!global->constval.vfunc))
-    {
-        irerror(global->context, "Invalid state of function-global: not constant: %s", global->name);
+    if (!global->hasvalue || (!global->constval.vfunc)) {
+        irerror(global->context, "Invalid state of function-global: not constant: %s", global->name.c_str());
         return false;
     }
 
     irfun = global->constval.vfunc;
-
-    fun.name    = global->code.name;
-    fun.file    = ir_builder_filestring(ir, global->context.file);
+    fun.name = global->code.name;
+    fun.file = ir_builder_filestring(ir, global->context.file);
     fun.profile = 0; /* always 0 */
-    fun.nargs   = vec_size(irfun->params);
+    fun.nargs = vec_size(irfun->params);
     if (fun.nargs > 8)
         fun.nargs = 8;
 
-    for (i = 0;i < 8; ++i) {
+    for (i = 0; i < 8; ++i) {
         if ((int32_t)i >= fun.nargs)
             fun.argsize[i] = 0;
         else
@@ -3356,28 +3091,27 @@ static bool gen_global_function(ir_builder *ir, ir_value *global)
     }
 
     fun.firstlocal = 0;
-    fun.locals     = irfun->allocated_locals;
+    fun.locals = irfun->allocated_locals;
 
     if (irfun->builtin)
         fun.entry = irfun->builtin+1;
     else {
-        irfun->code_function_def = vec_size(ir->code->functions);
-        fun.entry                = vec_size(ir->code->statements);
+        irfun->code_function_def = ir->code->functions.size();
+        fun.entry = ir->code->statements.size();
     }
 
-    vec_push(ir->code->functions, fun);
+    ir->code->functions.push_back(fun);
     return true;
 }
 
 static ir_value* ir_gen_extparam_proto(ir_builder *ir)
 {
-    ir_value *global;
     char      name[128];
 
-    util_snprintf(name, sizeof(name), "EXTPARM#%i", (int)(vec_size(ir->extparam_protos)));
-    global = ir_value_var(name, store_global, TYPE_VECTOR);
+    util_snprintf(name, sizeof(name), "EXTPARM#%i", (int)(ir->extparam_protos.size()));
+    ir_value *global = new ir_value(name, store_global, TYPE_VECTOR);
+    ir->extparam_protos.emplace_back(global);
 
-    vec_push(ir->extparam_protos, global);
     return global;
 }
 
@@ -3386,46 +3120,43 @@ static void ir_gen_extparam(ir_builder *ir)
     prog_section_def_t def;
     ir_value          *global;
 
-    if (vec_size(ir->extparam_protos) < vec_size(ir->extparams)+1)
+    if (ir->extparam_protos.size() < ir->extparams.size()+1)
         global = ir_gen_extparam_proto(ir);
     else
-        global = ir->extparam_protos[vec_size(ir->extparams)];
+        global = ir->extparam_protos[ir->extparams.size()].get();
 
-    def.name   = code_genstring(ir->code, global->name);
-    def.type   = TYPE_VECTOR;
-    def.offset = vec_size(ir->code->globals);
+    def.name = code_genstring(ir->code.get(), global->name.c_str());
+    def.type = TYPE_VECTOR;
+    def.offset = ir->code->globals.size();
 
-    vec_push(ir->code->defs, def);
+    ir->code->defs.push_back(def);
 
     ir_value_code_setaddr(global, def.offset);
 
-    vec_push(ir->code->globals, 0);
-    vec_push(ir->code->globals, 0);
-    vec_push(ir->code->globals, 0);
+    ir->code->globals.push_back(0);
+    ir->code->globals.push_back(0);
+    ir->code->globals.push_back(0);
 
-    vec_push(ir->extparams, global);
+    ir->extparams.emplace_back(global);
 }
 
 static bool gen_function_extparam_copy(code_t *code, ir_function *self)
 {
-    size_t i, ext, numparams;
-
     ir_builder *ir = self->owner;
-    ir_value   *ep;
-    prog_section_statement_t stmt;
 
-    numparams = vec_size(self->params);
+    size_t numparams = vec_size(self->params);
     if (!numparams)
         return true;
 
+    prog_section_statement_t stmt;
     stmt.opcode = INSTR_STORE_F;
     stmt.o3.s1 = 0;
-    for (i = 8; i < numparams; ++i) {
-        ext = i - 8;
-        if (ext >= vec_size(ir->extparams))
+    for (size_t i = 8; i < numparams; ++i) {
+        size_t ext = i - 8;
+        if (ext >= ir->extparams.size())
             ir_gen_extparam(ir);
 
-        ep = ir->extparams[ext];
+        ir_value *ep = ir->extparams[ext];
 
         stmt.opcode = type_store_instr[self->locals[i]->vtype];
         if (self->locals[i]->vtype == TYPE_FIELD &&
@@ -3434,7 +3165,7 @@ static bool gen_function_extparam_copy(code_t *code, ir_function *self)
             stmt.opcode = INSTR_STORE_V;
         }
         stmt.o1.u1 = ir_value_code_addr(ep);
-        stmt.o2.u1 = ir_value_code_addr(self->locals[i]);
+        stmt.o2.u1 = ir_value_code_addr(self->locals[i].get());
         code_push_statement(code, &stmt, self->context);
     }
 
@@ -3459,18 +3190,18 @@ static bool gen_function_varargs_copy(code_t *code, ir_function *self)
     for (i = numparams; i < maxparams; ++i) {
         if (i < 8) {
             stmt.o1.u1 = OFS_PARM0 + 3*i;
-            stmt.o2.u1 = ir_value_code_addr(self->locals[i]);
+            stmt.o2.u1 = ir_value_code_addr(self->locals[i].get());
             code_push_statement(code, &stmt, self->context);
             continue;
         }
         ext = i - 8;
-        while (ext >= vec_size(ir->extparams))
+        while (ext >= ir->extparams.size())
             ir_gen_extparam(ir);
 
         ep = ir->extparams[ext];
 
         stmt.o1.u1 = ir_value_code_addr(ep);
-        stmt.o2.u1 = ir_value_code_addr(self->locals[i]);
+        stmt.o2.u1 = ir_value_code_addr(self->locals[i].get());
         code_push_statement(code, &stmt, self->context);
     }
 
@@ -3481,17 +3212,16 @@ static bool gen_function_locals(ir_builder *ir, ir_value *global)
 {
     prog_section_function_t *def;
     ir_function             *irfun;
-    size_t                   i;
     uint32_t                 firstlocal, firstglobal;
 
     irfun = global->constval.vfunc;
-    def   = ir->code->functions + irfun->code_function_def;
+    def   = &ir->code->functions[0] + irfun->code_function_def;
 
     if (OPTS_OPTION_BOOL(OPTION_G) ||
         !OPTS_OPTIMIZATION(OPTIM_OVERLAP_LOCALS)        ||
         (irfun->flags & IR_FLAG_MASK_NO_OVERLAP))
     {
-        firstlocal = def->firstlocal = vec_size(ir->code->globals);
+        firstlocal = def->firstlocal = ir->code->globals.size();
     } else {
         firstlocal = def->firstlocal = ir->first_common_local;
         ++opts_optimizationcount[OPTIM_OVERLAP_LOCALS];
@@ -3499,23 +3229,23 @@ static bool gen_function_locals(ir_builder *ir, ir_value *global)
 
     firstglobal = (OPTS_OPTIMIZATION(OPTIM_GLOBAL_TEMPS) ? ir->first_common_globaltemp : firstlocal);
 
-    for (i = vec_size(ir->code->globals); i < firstlocal + irfun->allocated_locals; ++i)
-        vec_push(ir->code->globals, 0);
-    for (i = 0; i < vec_size(irfun->locals); ++i) {
-        ir_value *v = irfun->locals[i];
+    for (size_t i = ir->code->globals.size(); i < firstlocal + irfun->allocated_locals; ++i)
+        ir->code->globals.push_back(0);
+
+    for (auto& lp : irfun->locals) {
+        ir_value *v = lp.get();
         if (v->locked || !OPTS_OPTIMIZATION(OPTIM_GLOBAL_TEMPS)) {
             ir_value_code_setaddr(v, firstlocal + v->code.local);
-            if (!ir_builder_gen_global(ir, irfun->locals[i], true)) {
-                irerror(irfun->locals[i]->context, "failed to generate local %s", irfun->locals[i]->name);
+            if (!ir_builder_gen_global(ir, v, true)) {
+                irerror(v->context, "failed to generate local %s", v->name.c_str());
                 return false;
             }
         }
         else
             ir_value_code_setaddr(v, firstglobal + v->code.local);
     }
-    for (i = 0; i < vec_size(irfun->values); ++i)
-    {
-        ir_value *v = irfun->values[i];
+    for (auto& vp : irfun->values) {
+        ir_value *v = vp.get();
         if (v->callparam)
             continue;
         if (v->locked)
@@ -3538,7 +3268,7 @@ static bool gen_global_function_code(ir_builder *ir, ir_value *global)
         if (global->cvq == CV_NONE) {
             if (irwarning(global->context, WARN_IMPLICIT_FUNCTION_POINTER,
                           "function `%s` has no body and in QC implicitly becomes a function-pointer",
-                          global->name))
+                          global->name.c_str()))
             {
                 /* Not bailing out just now. If this happens a lot you don't want to have
                  * to rerun gmqcc for each such function.
@@ -3563,26 +3293,26 @@ static bool gen_global_function_code(ir_builder *ir, ir_value *global)
     }
 
     if (irfun->code_function_def < 0) {
-        irerror(irfun->context, "`%s`: IR global wasn't generated, failed to access function-def", irfun->name);
+        irerror(irfun->context, "`%s`: IR global wasn't generated, failed to access function-def", irfun->name.c_str());
         return false;
     }
     fundef = &ir->code->functions[irfun->code_function_def];
 
-    fundef->entry = vec_size(ir->code->statements);
+    fundef->entry = ir->code->statements.size();
     if (!gen_function_locals(ir, global)) {
-        irerror(irfun->context, "Failed to generate locals for function %s", irfun->name);
+        irerror(irfun->context, "Failed to generate locals for function %s", irfun->name.c_str());
         return false;
     }
-    if (!gen_function_extparam_copy(ir->code, irfun)) {
-        irerror(irfun->context, "Failed to generate extparam-copy code for function %s", irfun->name);
+    if (!gen_function_extparam_copy(ir->code.get(), irfun)) {
+        irerror(irfun->context, "Failed to generate extparam-copy code for function %s", irfun->name.c_str());
         return false;
     }
-    if (irfun->max_varargs && !gen_function_varargs_copy(ir->code, irfun)) {
-        irerror(irfun->context, "Failed to generate vararg-copy code for function %s", irfun->name);
+    if (irfun->max_varargs && !gen_function_varargs_copy(ir->code.get(), irfun)) {
+        irerror(irfun->context, "Failed to generate vararg-copy code for function %s", irfun->name.c_str());
         return false;
     }
-    if (!gen_function_code(ir->code, irfun)) {
-        irerror(irfun->context, "Failed to generate code for function %s", irfun->name);
+    if (!gen_function_code(ir->code.get(), irfun)) {
+        irerror(irfun->context, "Failed to generate code for function %s", irfun->name.c_str());
         return false;
     }
     return true;
@@ -3610,7 +3340,7 @@ static void gen_vector_defs(code_t *code, prog_section_def_t def, const char *na
 
     for (i = 0; i < 3; ++i) {
         def.name = code_genstring(code, component);
-        vec_push(code->defs, def);
+        code->defs.push_back(def);
         def.offset++;
         component[len-1]++;
     }
@@ -3640,7 +3370,7 @@ static void gen_vector_fields(code_t *code, prog_section_field_t fld, const char
 
     for (i = 0; i < 3; ++i) {
         fld.name = code_genstring(code, component);
-        vec_push(code->fields, fld);
+        code->fields.push_back(fld);
         fld.offset++;
         component[len-1]++;
     }
@@ -3659,9 +3389,9 @@ static bool ir_builder_gen_global(ir_builder *self, ir_value *global, bool isloc
     if (global->vtype == TYPE_VECTOR && (global->flags & IR_FLAG_SPLIT_VECTOR))
         return true;
 
-    def.type   = global->vtype;
-    def.offset = vec_size(self->code->globals);
-    def.name   = 0;
+    def.type = global->vtype;
+    def.offset = self->code->globals.size();
+    def.name = 0;
     if (OPTS_OPTION_BOOL(OPTION_G) || !islocal)
     {
         pushdef = true;
@@ -3670,7 +3400,7 @@ static bool ir_builder_gen_global(ir_builder *self, ir_value *global, bool isloc
          * if we're eraseable and the function isn't referenced ignore outputting
          * the function.
          */
-        if (global->flags & IR_FLAG_ERASABLE && vec_size(global->reads) == 0) {
+        if (global->flags & IR_FLAG_ERASABLE && global->reads.empty()) {
             return true;
         }
 
@@ -3684,21 +3414,21 @@ static bool ir_builder_gen_global(ir_builder *self, ir_value *global, bool isloc
         if (pushdef) {
             if (global->name[0] == '#') {
                 if (!self->str_immediate)
-                    self->str_immediate = code_genstring(self->code, "IMMEDIATE");
+                    self->str_immediate = code_genstring(self->code.get(), "IMMEDIATE");
                 def.name = global->code.name = self->str_immediate;
             }
             else
-                def.name = global->code.name = code_genstring(self->code, global->name);
+                def.name = global->code.name = code_genstring(self->code.get(), global->name.c_str());
         }
         else
             def.name   = 0;
         if (islocal) {
             def.offset = ir_value_code_addr(global);
-            vec_push(self->code->defs, def);
+            self->code->defs.push_back(def);
             if (global->vtype == TYPE_VECTOR)
-                gen_vector_defs(self->code, def, global->name);
+                gen_vector_defs(self->code.get(), def, global->name.c_str());
             else if (global->vtype == TYPE_FIELD && global->fieldtype == TYPE_VECTOR)
-                gen_vector_defs(self->code, def, global->name);
+                gen_vector_defs(self->code.get(), def, global->name.c_str());
             return true;
         }
     }
@@ -3708,17 +3438,15 @@ static bool ir_builder_gen_global(ir_builder *self, ir_value *global, bool isloc
     switch (global->vtype)
     {
     case TYPE_VOID:
-        if (!strcmp(global->name, "end_sys_globals")) {
-            /* TODO: remember this point... all the defs before this one
-             * should be checksummed and added to progdefs.h when we generate it.
-             */
+        if (0 == global->name.compare("end_sys_globals")) {
+            // TODO: remember this point... all the defs before this one
+            // should be checksummed and added to progdefs.h when we generate it.
         }
-        else if (!strcmp(global->name, "end_sys_fields")) {
-            /* TODO: same as above but for entity-fields rather than globsl
-             */
+        else if (0 == global->name.compare("end_sys_fields")) {
+            // TODO: same as above but for entity-fields rather than globsl
         }
         else if(irwarning(global->context, WARN_VOID_VARIABLES, "unrecognized variable of type void `%s`",
-                          global->name))
+                          global->name.c_str()))
         {
             /* Not bailing out */
             /* return false; */
@@ -3728,108 +3456,108 @@ static bool ir_builder_gen_global(ir_builder *self, ir_value *global, bool isloc
          * Maybe this could be an -foption
          * fteqcc creates data for end_sys_* - of size 1, so let's do the same
          */
-        ir_value_code_setaddr(global, vec_size(self->code->globals));
-        vec_push(self->code->globals, 0);
+        ir_value_code_setaddr(global, self->code->globals.size());
+        self->code->globals.push_back(0);
         /* Add the def */
-        if (pushdef) vec_push(self->code->defs, def);
+        if (pushdef) self->code->defs.push_back(def);
         return true;
     case TYPE_POINTER:
-        if (pushdef) vec_push(self->code->defs, def);
-        return gen_global_pointer(self->code, global);
+        if (pushdef) self->code->defs.push_back(def);
+        return gen_global_pointer(self->code.get(), global);
     case TYPE_FIELD:
         if (pushdef) {
-            vec_push(self->code->defs, def);
+            self->code->defs.push_back(def);
             if (global->fieldtype == TYPE_VECTOR)
-                gen_vector_defs(self->code, def, global->name);
+                gen_vector_defs(self->code.get(), def, global->name.c_str());
         }
-        return gen_global_field(self->code, global);
+        return gen_global_field(self->code.get(), global);
     case TYPE_ENTITY:
         /* fall through */
     case TYPE_FLOAT:
     {
-        ir_value_code_setaddr(global, vec_size(self->code->globals));
+        ir_value_code_setaddr(global, self->code->globals.size());
         if (global->hasvalue) {
             iptr = (int32_t*)&global->constval.ivec[0];
-            vec_push(self->code->globals, *iptr);
+            self->code->globals.push_back(*iptr);
         } else {
-            vec_push(self->code->globals, 0);
+            self->code->globals.push_back(0);
         }
         if (!islocal && global->cvq != CV_CONST)
             def.type |= DEF_SAVEGLOBAL;
-        if (pushdef) vec_push(self->code->defs, def);
+        if (pushdef) self->code->defs.push_back(def);
 
         return global->code.globaladdr >= 0;
     }
     case TYPE_STRING:
     {
-        ir_value_code_setaddr(global, vec_size(self->code->globals));
+        ir_value_code_setaddr(global, self->code->globals.size());
         if (global->hasvalue) {
-            uint32_t load = code_genstring(self->code, global->constval.vstring);
-            vec_push(self->code->globals, load);
+            uint32_t load = code_genstring(self->code.get(), global->constval.vstring);
+            self->code->globals.push_back(load);
         } else {
-            vec_push(self->code->globals, 0);
+            self->code->globals.push_back(0);
         }
         if (!islocal && global->cvq != CV_CONST)
             def.type |= DEF_SAVEGLOBAL;
-        if (pushdef) vec_push(self->code->defs, def);
+        if (pushdef) self->code->defs.push_back(def);
         return global->code.globaladdr >= 0;
     }
     case TYPE_VECTOR:
     {
         size_t d;
-        ir_value_code_setaddr(global, vec_size(self->code->globals));
+        ir_value_code_setaddr(global, self->code->globals.size());
         if (global->hasvalue) {
             iptr = (int32_t*)&global->constval.ivec[0];
-            vec_push(self->code->globals, iptr[0]);
+            self->code->globals.push_back(iptr[0]);
             if (global->code.globaladdr < 0)
                 return false;
             for (d = 1; d < type_sizeof_[global->vtype]; ++d) {
-                vec_push(self->code->globals, iptr[d]);
+                self->code->globals.push_back(iptr[d]);
             }
         } else {
-            vec_push(self->code->globals, 0);
+            self->code->globals.push_back(0);
             if (global->code.globaladdr < 0)
                 return false;
             for (d = 1; d < type_sizeof_[global->vtype]; ++d) {
-                vec_push(self->code->globals, 0);
+                self->code->globals.push_back(0);
             }
         }
         if (!islocal && global->cvq != CV_CONST)
             def.type |= DEF_SAVEGLOBAL;
 
         if (pushdef) {
-            vec_push(self->code->defs, def);
+            self->code->defs.push_back(def);
             def.type &= ~DEF_SAVEGLOBAL;
-            gen_vector_defs(self->code, def, global->name);
+            gen_vector_defs(self->code.get(), def, global->name.c_str());
         }
         return global->code.globaladdr >= 0;
     }
     case TYPE_FUNCTION:
-        ir_value_code_setaddr(global, vec_size(self->code->globals));
+        ir_value_code_setaddr(global, self->code->globals.size());
         if (!global->hasvalue) {
-            vec_push(self->code->globals, 0);
+            self->code->globals.push_back(0);
             if (global->code.globaladdr < 0)
                 return false;
         } else {
-            vec_push(self->code->globals, vec_size(self->code->functions));
+            self->code->globals.push_back(self->code->functions.size());
             if (!gen_global_function(self, global))
                 return false;
         }
         if (!islocal && global->cvq != CV_CONST)
             def.type |= DEF_SAVEGLOBAL;
-        if (pushdef) vec_push(self->code->defs, def);
+        if (pushdef) self->code->defs.push_back(def);
         return true;
     case TYPE_VARIANT:
         /* assume biggest type */
-            ir_value_code_setaddr(global, vec_size(self->code->globals));
-            vec_push(self->code->globals, 0);
+            ir_value_code_setaddr(global, self->code->globals.size());
+            self->code->globals.push_back(0);
             for (i = 1; i < type_sizeof_[TYPE_VARIANT]; ++i)
-                vec_push(self->code->globals, 0);
+                self->code->globals.push_back(0);
             return true;
     default:
         /* refuse to create 'void' type or any other fancy business. */
         irerror(global->context, "Invalid type for global variable `%s`: %s",
-                global->name, type_name[global->vtype]);
+                global->name.c_str(), type_name[global->vtype]);
         return false;
     }
 }
@@ -3847,12 +3575,12 @@ static bool ir_builder_gen_field(ir_builder *self, ir_value *field)
     (void)self;
 
     def.type   = (uint16_t)field->vtype;
-    def.offset = (uint16_t)vec_size(self->code->globals);
+    def.offset = (uint16_t)self->code->globals.size();
 
     /* create a global named the same as the field */
     if (OPTS_OPTION_U32(OPTION_STANDARD) == COMPILER_GMQCC) {
         /* in our standard, the global gets a dot prefix */
-        size_t len = strlen(field->name);
+        size_t len = field->name.length();
         char name[1024];
 
         /* we really don't want to have to allocate this, and 1024
@@ -3864,10 +3592,10 @@ static bool ir_builder_gen_field(ir_builder *self, ir_value *field)
         }
 
         name[0] = '.';
-        memcpy(name+1, field->name, len); /* no strncpy - we used strlen above */
+        memcpy(name+1, field->name.c_str(), len); // no strncpy - we used strlen above
         name[len+1] = 0;
 
-        def.name = code_genstring(self->code, name);
+        def.name = code_genstring(self->code.get(), name);
         fld.name = def.name + 1; /* we reuse that string table entry */
     } else {
         /* in plain QC, there cannot be a global with the same name,
@@ -3875,83 +3603,80 @@ static bool ir_builder_gen_field(ir_builder *self, ir_value *field)
          * FIXME: fteqcc should create a global as well
          * check if it actually uses the same name. Probably does
          */
-        def.name = code_genstring(self->code, field->name);
+        def.name = code_genstring(self->code.get(), field->name.c_str());
         fld.name = def.name;
     }
 
     field->code.name = def.name;
 
-    vec_push(self->code->defs, def);
+    self->code->defs.push_back(def);
 
     fld.type = field->fieldtype;
 
     if (fld.type == TYPE_VOID) {
-        irerror(field->context, "field is missing a type: %s - don't know its size", field->name);
+        irerror(field->context, "field is missing a type: %s - don't know its size", field->name.c_str());
         return false;
     }
 
     fld.offset = field->code.fieldaddr;
 
-    vec_push(self->code->fields, fld);
+    self->code->fields.push_back(fld);
 
-    ir_value_code_setaddr(field, vec_size(self->code->globals));
-    vec_push(self->code->globals, fld.offset);
+    ir_value_code_setaddr(field, self->code->globals.size());
+    self->code->globals.push_back(fld.offset);
     if (fld.type == TYPE_VECTOR) {
-        vec_push(self->code->globals, fld.offset+1);
-        vec_push(self->code->globals, fld.offset+2);
+        self->code->globals.push_back(fld.offset+1);
+        self->code->globals.push_back(fld.offset+2);
     }
 
     if (field->fieldtype == TYPE_VECTOR) {
-        gen_vector_defs  (self->code, def, field->name);
-        gen_vector_fields(self->code, fld, field->name);
+        gen_vector_defs  (self->code.get(), def, field->name.c_str());
+        gen_vector_fields(self->code.get(), fld, field->name.c_str());
     }
 
     return field->code.globaladdr >= 0;
 }
 
 static void ir_builder_collect_reusables(ir_builder *builder) {
-    size_t i;
-    ir_value **reusables = NULL;
-    for (i = 0; i < vec_size(builder->globals); ++i) {
-        ir_value *value = builder->globals[i];
+    std::vector<ir_value*> reusables;
+
+    for (auto& gp : builder->globals) {
+        ir_value *value = gp.get();
         if (value->vtype != TYPE_FLOAT || !value->hasvalue)
             continue;
-        if (value->cvq == CV_CONST || (value->name && value->name[0] == '#')) {
-            vec_push(reusables, value);
-        }
+        if (value->cvq == CV_CONST || (value->name.length() >= 1 && value->name[0] == '#'))
+            reusables.emplace_back(value);
     }
-    builder->const_floats = reusables;
+    builder->const_floats = move(reusables);
 }
 
 static void ir_builder_split_vector(ir_builder *self, ir_value *vec) {
-    size_t i, count;
-    ir_value* found[3] = { NULL, NULL, NULL };
+    ir_value* found[3] = { nullptr, nullptr, nullptr };
 
-    /* must not be written to */
-    if (vec_size(vec->writes))
+    // must not be written to
+    if (vec->writes.size())
         return;
-    /* must not be trying to access individual members */
+    // must not be trying to access individual members
     if (vec->members[0] || vec->members[1] || vec->members[2])
         return;
-    /* should be actually used otherwise it won't be generated anyway */
-    count = vec_size(vec->reads);
-    if (!count)
+    // should be actually used otherwise it won't be generated anyway
+    if (vec->reads.empty())
         return;
+    //size_t count = vec->reads.size();
+    //if (!count)
+    //    return;
 
-    /* may only be used directly as function parameters, so if we find some other instruction cancel */
-    for (i = 0; i != count; ++i) {
-        /* we only split vectors if they're used directly as parameter to a call only! */
-        ir_instr *user = vec->reads[i];
+    // may only be used directly as function parameters, so if we find some other instruction cancel
+    for (ir_instr *user : vec->reads) {
+        // we only split vectors if they're used directly as parameter to a call only!
         if ((user->opcode < INSTR_CALL0 || user->opcode > INSTR_CALL8) && user->opcode != VINSTR_NRCALL)
             return;
     }
 
     vec->flags |= IR_FLAG_SPLIT_VECTOR;
 
-    /* find existing floats making up the split */
-    count = vec_size(self->const_floats);
-    for (i = 0; i != count; ++i) {
-        ir_value *c = self->const_floats[i];
+    // find existing floats making up the split
+    for (ir_value *c : self->const_floats) {
         if (!found[0] && c->constval.vfloat == vec->constval.vvec.x)
             found[0] = c;
         if (!found[1] && c->constval.vfloat == vec->constval.vvec.y)
@@ -3962,7 +3687,7 @@ static void ir_builder_split_vector(ir_builder *self, ir_value *vec) {
             break;
     }
 
-    /* generate floats for not yet found components */
+    // generate floats for not yet found components
     if (!found[0])
         found[0] = ir_builder_imm_float(self, vec->constval.vvec.x, true);
     if (!found[1]) {
@@ -3980,54 +3705,51 @@ static void ir_builder_split_vector(ir_builder *self, ir_value *vec) {
             found[2] = ir_builder_imm_float(self, vec->constval.vvec.z, true);
     }
 
-    /* the .members array should be safe to use here. */
+    // the .members array should be safe to use here
     vec->members[0] = found[0];
     vec->members[1] = found[1];
     vec->members[2] = found[2];
 
-    /* register the readers for these floats */
-    count = vec_size(vec->reads);
-    for (i = 0; i != count; ++i) {
-        vec_push(found[0]->reads, vec->reads[i]);
-        vec_push(found[1]->reads, vec->reads[i]);
-        vec_push(found[2]->reads, vec->reads[i]);
-    }
+    // register the readers for these floats
+    found[0]->reads.insert(found[0]->reads.end(), vec->reads.begin(), vec->reads.end());
+    found[1]->reads.insert(found[1]->reads.end(), vec->reads.begin(), vec->reads.end());
+    found[2]->reads.insert(found[2]->reads.end(), vec->reads.begin(), vec->reads.end());
 }
 
 static void ir_builder_split_vectors(ir_builder *self) {
-    size_t i, count = vec_size(self->globals);
-    for (i = 0; i != count; ++i) {
-        ir_value *v = self->globals[i];
-        if (v->vtype != TYPE_VECTOR || !v->name || v->name[0] != '#')
+    // member values may be added to self->globals during this operation, but
+    // no new vectors will be added, we need to iterate via an index as
+    // c++ iterators would be invalidated
+    const size_t count = self->globals.size();
+    for (size_t i = 0; i != count; ++i) {
+        ir_value *v = self->globals[i].get();
+        if (v->vtype != TYPE_VECTOR || !v->name.length() || v->name[0] != '#')
             continue;
-        ir_builder_split_vector(self, self->globals[i]);
+        ir_builder_split_vector(self, v);
     }
 }
 
 bool ir_builder_generate(ir_builder *self, const char *filename)
 {
     prog_section_statement_t stmt;
-    size_t i;
-    char  *lnofile = NULL;
+    char  *lnofile = nullptr;
 
     if (OPTS_FLAG(SPLIT_VECTOR_PARAMETERS)) {
         ir_builder_collect_reusables(self);
-        if (vec_size(self->const_floats) > 0)
+        if (!self->const_floats.empty())
             ir_builder_split_vectors(self);
     }
 
-    for (i = 0; i < vec_size(self->fields); ++i)
-    {
-        ir_builder_prepare_field(self->code, self->fields[i]);
-    }
+    for (auto& fp : self->fields)
+        ir_builder_prepare_field(self->code.get(), fp.get());
 
-    for (i = 0; i < vec_size(self->globals); ++i)
-    {
-        if (!ir_builder_gen_global(self, self->globals[i], false)) {
+    for (auto& gp : self->globals) {
+        ir_value *global = gp.get();
+        if (!ir_builder_gen_global(self, global, false)) {
             return false;
         }
-        if (self->globals[i]->vtype == TYPE_FUNCTION) {
-            ir_function *func = self->globals[i]->constval.vfunc;
+        if (global->vtype == TYPE_FUNCTION) {
+            ir_function *func = global->constval.vfunc;
             if (func && self->max_locals < func->allocated_locals &&
                 !(func->flags & IR_FLAG_MASK_NO_OVERLAP))
             {
@@ -4038,55 +3760,60 @@ bool ir_builder_generate(ir_builder *self, const char *filename)
         }
     }
 
-    for (i = 0; i < vec_size(self->fields); ++i)
-    {
-        if (!ir_builder_gen_field(self, self->fields[i])) {
+    for (auto& fp : self->fields) {
+        if (!ir_builder_gen_field(self, fp.get()))
             return false;
-        }
-    }
-
-    /* generate nil */
-    ir_value_code_setaddr(self->nil, vec_size(self->code->globals));
-    vec_push(self->code->globals, 0);
-    vec_push(self->code->globals, 0);
-    vec_push(self->code->globals, 0);
-
-    /* generate virtual-instruction temps */
-    for (i = 0; i < IR_MAX_VINSTR_TEMPS; ++i) {
-        ir_value_code_setaddr(self->vinstr_temp[i], vec_size(self->code->globals));
-        vec_push(self->code->globals, 0);
-        vec_push(self->code->globals, 0);
-        vec_push(self->code->globals, 0);
-    }
-
-    /* generate global temps */
-    self->first_common_globaltemp = vec_size(self->code->globals);
-    for (i = 0; i < self->max_globaltemps; ++i) {
-        vec_push(self->code->globals, 0);
-    }
-    /* generate common locals */
-    self->first_common_local = vec_size(self->code->globals);
-    for (i = 0; i < self->max_locals; ++i) {
-        vec_push(self->code->globals, 0);
     }
 
-    /* generate function code */
-    for (i = 0; i < vec_size(self->globals); ++i)
-    {
-        if (self->globals[i]->vtype == TYPE_FUNCTION) {
-            if (!gen_global_function_code(self, self->globals[i])) {
+    // generate nil
+    ir_value_code_setaddr(self->nil, self->code->globals.size());
+    self->code->globals.push_back(0);
+    self->code->globals.push_back(0);
+    self->code->globals.push_back(0);
+
+    // generate virtual-instruction temps
+    for (size_t i = 0; i < IR_MAX_VINSTR_TEMPS; ++i) {
+        ir_value_code_setaddr(self->vinstr_temp[i], self->code->globals.size());
+        self->code->globals.push_back(0);
+        self->code->globals.push_back(0);
+        self->code->globals.push_back(0);
+    }
+
+    // generate global temps
+    self->first_common_globaltemp = self->code->globals.size();
+    self->code->globals.insert(self->code->globals.end(), self->max_globaltemps, 0);
+    // FIXME:DELME:
+    //for (size_t i = 0; i < self->max_globaltemps; ++i) {
+    //    self->code->globals.push_back(0);
+    //}
+    // generate common locals
+    self->first_common_local = self->code->globals.size();
+    self->code->globals.insert(self->code->globals.end(), self->max_locals, 0);
+    // FIXME:DELME:
+    //for (i = 0; i < self->max_locals; ++i) {
+    //    self->code->globals.push_back(0);
+    //}
+
+    // generate function code
+
+    for (auto& gp : self->globals) {
+        ir_value *global = gp.get();
+        if (global->vtype == TYPE_FUNCTION) {
+            if (!gen_global_function_code(self, global)) {
                 return false;
             }
         }
     }
 
-    if (vec_size(self->code->globals) >= 65536) {
-        irerror(vec_last(self->globals)->context, "This progs file would require more globals than the metadata can handle (%u). Bailing out.", (unsigned int)vec_size(self->code->globals));
+    if (self->code->globals.size() >= 65536) {
+        irerror(self->globals.back()->context,
+            "This progs file would require more globals than the metadata can handle (%zu). Bailing out.",
+            self->code->globals.size());
         return false;
     }
 
     /* DP errors if the last instruction is not an INSTR_DONE. */
-    if (vec_last(self->code->statements).opcode != INSTR_DONE)
+    if (self->code->statements.back().opcode != INSTR_DONE)
     {
         lex_ctx_t last;
 
@@ -4094,19 +3821,19 @@ bool ir_builder_generate(ir_builder *self, const char *filename)
         stmt.o1.u1  = 0;
         stmt.o2.u1  = 0;
         stmt.o3.u1  = 0;
-        last.line   = vec_last(self->code->linenums);
-        last.column = vec_last(self->code->columnnums);
+        last.line   = self->code->linenums.back();
+        last.column = self->code->columnnums.back();
 
-        code_push_statement(self->code, &stmt, last);
+        code_push_statement(self->code.get(), &stmt, last);
     }
 
     if (OPTS_OPTION_BOOL(OPTION_PP_ONLY))
         return true;
 
-    if (vec_size(self->code->statements) != vec_size(self->code->linenums)) {
+    if (self->code->statements.size() != self->code->linenums.size()) {
         con_err("Linecounter wrong: %lu != %lu\n",
-                (unsigned long)vec_size(self->code->statements),
-                (unsigned long)vec_size(self->code->linenums));
+                self->code->statements.size(),
+                self->code->linenums.size());
     } else if (OPTS_FLAG(LNO)) {
         char  *dot;
         size_t filelen = strlen(filename);
@@ -4121,7 +3848,7 @@ bool ir_builder_generate(ir_builder *self, const char *filename)
         memcpy(vec_add(lnofile, 5), ".lno", 5);
     }
 
-    if (!code_write(self->code, filename, lnofile)) {
+    if (!code_write(self->code.get(), filename, lnofile)) {
         vec_free(lnofile);
         return false;
     }
@@ -4167,18 +3894,18 @@ void ir_builder_dump(ir_builder *b, int (*oprintf)(const char*, ...))
     indent[0] = '\t';
     indent[1] = 0;
 
-    oprintf("module %s\n", b->name);
-    for (i = 0; i < vec_size(b->globals); ++i)
+    oprintf("module %s\n", b->name.c_str());
+    for (i = 0; i < b->globals.size(); ++i)
     {
         oprintf("global ");
         if (b->globals[i]->hasvalue)
-            oprintf("%s = ", b->globals[i]->name);
-        ir_value_dump(b->globals[i], oprintf);
+            oprintf("%s = ", b->globals[i]->name.c_str());
+        ir_value_dump(b->globals[i].get(), oprintf);
         oprintf("\n");
     }
-    for (i = 0; i < vec_size(b->functions); ++i)
-        ir_function_dump(b->functions[i], indent, oprintf);
-    oprintf("endmodule %s\n", b->name);
+    for (i = 0; i < b->functions.size(); ++i)
+        ir_function_dump(b->functions[i].get(), indent, oprintf);
+    oprintf("endmodule %s\n", b->name.c_str());
 }
 
 static const char *storenames[] = {
@@ -4190,38 +3917,38 @@ void ir_function_dump(ir_function *f, char *ind,
 {
     size_t i;
     if (f->builtin != 0) {
-        oprintf("%sfunction %s = builtin %i\n", ind, f->name, -f->builtin);
+        oprintf("%sfunction %s = builtin %i\n", ind, f->name.c_str(), -f->builtin);
         return;
     }
-    oprintf("%sfunction %s\n", ind, f->name);
+    oprintf("%sfunction %s\n", ind, f->name.c_str());
     util_strncat(ind, "\t", IND_BUFSZ-1);
-    if (vec_size(f->locals))
+    if (f->locals.size())
     {
-        oprintf("%s%i locals:\n", ind, (int)vec_size(f->locals));
-        for (i = 0; i < vec_size(f->locals); ++i) {
+        oprintf("%s%i locals:\n", ind, (int)f->locals.size());
+        for (i = 0; i < f->locals.size(); ++i) {
             oprintf("%s\t", ind);
-            ir_value_dump(f->locals[i], oprintf);
+            ir_value_dump(f->locals[i].get(), oprintf);
             oprintf("\n");
         }
     }
     oprintf("%sliferanges:\n", ind);
-    for (i = 0; i < vec_size(f->locals); ++i) {
+    for (i = 0; i < f->locals.size(); ++i) {
         const char *attr = "";
         size_t l, m;
-        ir_value *v = f->locals[i];
+        ir_value *v = f->locals[i].get();
         if (v->unique_life && v->locked)
             attr = "unique,locked ";
         else if (v->unique_life)
             attr = "unique ";
         else if (v->locked)
             attr = "locked ";
-        oprintf("%s\t%s: %s %s %s%s@%i ", ind, v->name, type_name[v->vtype],
+        oprintf("%s\t%s: %s %s %s%s@%i ", ind, v->name.c_str(), type_name[v->vtype],
                 storenames[v->store],
                 attr, (v->callparam ? "callparam " : ""),
                 (int)v->code.local);
-        if (!v->life)
+        if (v->life.empty())
             oprintf("[null]");
-        for (l = 0; l < vec_size(v->life); ++l) {
+        for (l = 0; l < v->life.size(); ++l) {
             oprintf("[%i,%i] ", v->life[l].start, v->life[l].end);
         }
         oprintf("\n");
@@ -4229,30 +3956,30 @@ void ir_function_dump(ir_function *f, char *ind,
             ir_value *vm = v->members[m];
             if (!vm)
                 continue;
-            oprintf("%s\t%s: @%i ", ind, vm->name, (int)vm->code.local);
-            for (l = 0; l < vec_size(vm->life); ++l) {
+            oprintf("%s\t%s: @%i ", ind, vm->name.c_str(), (int)vm->code.local);
+            for (l = 0; l < vm->life.size(); ++l) {
                 oprintf("[%i,%i] ", vm->life[l].start, vm->life[l].end);
             }
             oprintf("\n");
         }
     }
-    for (i = 0; i < vec_size(f->values); ++i) {
+    for (i = 0; i < f->values.size(); ++i) {
         const char *attr = "";
         size_t l, m;
-        ir_value *v = f->values[i];
+        ir_value *v = f->values[i].get();
         if (v->unique_life && v->locked)
             attr = "unique,locked ";
         else if (v->unique_life)
             attr = "unique ";
         else if (v->locked)
             attr = "locked ";
-        oprintf("%s\t%s: %s %s %s%s@%i ", ind, v->name, type_name[v->vtype],
+        oprintf("%s\t%s: %s %s %s%s@%i ", ind, v->name.c_str(), type_name[v->vtype],
                 storenames[v->store],
                 attr, (v->callparam ? "callparam " : ""),
                 (int)v->code.local);
-        if (!v->life)
+        if (v->life.empty())
             oprintf("[null]");
-        for (l = 0; l < vec_size(v->life); ++l) {
+        for (l = 0; l < v->life.size(); ++l) {
             oprintf("[%i,%i] ", v->life[l].start, v->life[l].end);
         }
         oprintf("\n");
@@ -4266,30 +3993,30 @@ void ir_function_dump(ir_function *f, char *ind,
                 attr = "unique ";
             else if (vm->locked)
                 attr = "locked ";
-            oprintf("%s\t%s: %s@%i ", ind, vm->name, attr, (int)vm->code.local);
-            for (l = 0; l < vec_size(vm->life); ++l) {
+            oprintf("%s\t%s: %s@%i ", ind, vm->name.c_str(), attr, (int)vm->code.local);
+            for (l = 0; l < vm->life.size(); ++l) {
                 oprintf("[%i,%i] ", vm->life[l].start, vm->life[l].end);
             }
             oprintf("\n");
         }
     }
-    if (vec_size(f->blocks))
+    if (f->blocks.size())
     {
         oprintf("%slife passes: %i\n", ind, (int)f->run_id);
-        for (i = 0; i < vec_size(f->blocks); ++i) {
-            ir_block_dump(f->blocks[i], ind, oprintf);
+        for (i = 0; i < f->blocks.size(); ++i) {
+            ir_block_dump(f->blocks[i].get(), ind, oprintf);
         }
 
     }
     ind[strlen(ind)-1] = 0;
-    oprintf("%sendfunction %s\n", ind, f->name);
+    oprintf("%sendfunction %s\n", ind, f->name.c_str());
 }
 
 void ir_block_dump(ir_block* b, char *ind,
                    int (*oprintf)(const char*, ...))
 {
     size_t i;
-    oprintf("%s:%s\n", ind, b->label);
+    oprintf("%s:%s\n", ind, b->label.c_str());
     util_strncat(ind, "\t", IND_BUFSZ-1);
 
     if (b->instr && b->instr[0])
@@ -4301,12 +4028,10 @@ void ir_block_dump(ir_block* b, char *ind,
 
 static void dump_phi(ir_instr *in, int (*oprintf)(const char*, ...))
 {
-    size_t i;
-    oprintf("%s <- phi ", in->_ops[0]->name);
-    for (i = 0; i < vec_size(in->phi); ++i)
-    {
-        oprintf("([%s] : %s) ", in->phi[i].from->label,
-                                in->phi[i].value->name);
+    oprintf("%s <- phi ", in->_ops[0]->name.c_str());
+    for (auto &it : in->phi) {
+        oprintf("([%s] : %s) ", it.from->label.c_str(),
+                                it.value->name.c_str());
     }
     oprintf("\n");
 }
@@ -4315,7 +4040,7 @@ void ir_instr_dump(ir_instr *in, char *ind,
                        int (*oprintf)(const char*, ...))
 {
     size_t i;
-    const char *comma = NULL;
+    const char *comma = nullptr;
 
     oprintf("%s (%i) ", ind, (int)in->eid);
 
@@ -4332,7 +4057,7 @@ void ir_instr_dump(ir_instr *in, char *ind,
             oprintf(" <- ");
     }
     if (in->opcode == INSTR_CALL0 || in->opcode == VINSTR_NRCALL) {
-        oprintf("CALL%i\t", vec_size(in->params));
+        oprintf("CALL%i\t", in->params.size());
     } else
         oprintf("%s\t", qc_opname(in->opcode));
 
@@ -4354,16 +4079,15 @@ void ir_instr_dump(ir_instr *in, char *ind,
     if (in->bops[0]) {
         if (comma)
             oprintf(comma);
-        oprintf("[%s]", in->bops[0]->label);
+        oprintf("[%s]", in->bops[0]->label.c_str());
         comma = ",\t";
     }
     if (in->bops[1])
-        oprintf("%s[%s]", comma, in->bops[1]->label);
-    if (vec_size(in->params)) {
+        oprintf("%s[%s]", comma, in->bops[1]->label.c_str());
+    if (in->params.size()) {
         oprintf("\tparams: ");
-        for (i = 0; i != vec_size(in->params); ++i) {
-            oprintf("%s, ", in->params[i]->name);
-        }
+        for (auto &it : in->params)
+            oprintf("%s, ", it->name.c_str());
     }
     oprintf("\n");
     ind[strlen(ind)-1] = 0;
@@ -4398,7 +4122,7 @@ void ir_value_dump(ir_value* v, int (*oprintf)(const char*, ...))
                 oprintf("(void)");
                 break;
             case TYPE_FUNCTION:
-                oprintf("fn:%s", v->name);
+                oprintf("fn:%s", v->name.c_str());
                 break;
             case TYPE_FLOAT:
                 oprintf("%g", v->constval.vfloat);
@@ -4422,19 +4146,18 @@ void ir_value_dump(ir_value* v, int (*oprintf)(const char*, ...))
 #endif
             case TYPE_POINTER:
                 oprintf("&%s",
-                    v->constval.vpointer->name);
+                    v->constval.vpointer->name.c_str());
                 break;
         }
     } else {
-        oprintf("%s", v->name);
+        oprintf("%s", v->name.c_str());
     }
 }
 
 void ir_value_dump_life(const ir_value *self, int (*oprintf)(const char*,...))
 {
-    size_t i;
-    oprintf("Life of %12s:", self->name);
-    for (i = 0; i < vec_size(self->life); ++i)
+    oprintf("Life of %12s:", self->name.c_str());
+    for (size_t i = 0; i < self->life.size(); ++i)
     {
         oprintf(" + [%i, %i]\n", self->life[i].start, self->life[i].end);
     }