added -fdefault-eraseable which is the same as adding [[eraseable]] to all definitions
[xonotic/gmqcc.git] / ast.cpp
diff --git a/ast.cpp b/ast.cpp
index 10356bead71e9afd692dc05a9121d561b3988502..7b444f8a402dfdf18efaab0ae3d171c1174972ae 100644 (file)
--- a/ast.cpp
+++ b/ast.cpp
 
 #include "algo.h"
 
-#define ast_instantiate(T, ctx, destroyfn)                          \
-    T* self = (T*)mem_a(sizeof(T));                                 \
-    if (!self) {                                                    \
-        return nullptr;                                                \
-    }                                                               \
-    new (self) T();                                                 \
-    ast_node_init((ast_node*)self, ctx, TYPE_##T);                  \
-    ( (ast_node*)self )->destroy = (ast_node_delete*)destroyfn
-
-/*
- * forward declarations, these need not be in ast.h for obvious
- * static reasons.
- */
-static bool ast_member_codegen(ast_member*, ast_function*, bool lvalue, ir_value**);
-static void ast_array_index_delete(ast_array_index*);
-static bool ast_array_index_codegen(ast_array_index*, ast_function*, bool lvalue, ir_value**);
-static void ast_argpipe_delete(ast_argpipe*);
-static bool ast_argpipe_codegen(ast_argpipe*, ast_function*, bool lvalue, ir_value**);
-static void ast_store_delete(ast_store*);
-static bool ast_store_codegen(ast_store*, ast_function*, bool lvalue, ir_value**);
-static void ast_ifthen_delete(ast_ifthen*);
-static bool ast_ifthen_codegen(ast_ifthen*, ast_function*, bool lvalue, ir_value**);
-static void ast_ternary_delete(ast_ternary*);
-static bool ast_ternary_codegen(ast_ternary*, ast_function*, bool lvalue, ir_value**);
-static void ast_loop_delete(ast_loop*);
-static bool ast_loop_codegen(ast_loop*, ast_function*, bool lvalue, ir_value**);
-static void ast_breakcont_delete(ast_breakcont*);
-static bool ast_breakcont_codegen(ast_breakcont*, ast_function*, bool lvalue, ir_value**);
-static void ast_switch_delete(ast_switch*);
-static bool ast_switch_codegen(ast_switch*, ast_function*, bool lvalue, ir_value**);
-static void ast_label_delete(ast_label*);
-static void ast_label_register_goto(ast_label*, ast_goto*);
-static bool ast_label_codegen(ast_label*, ast_function*, bool lvalue, ir_value**);
-static bool ast_goto_codegen(ast_goto*, ast_function*, bool lvalue, ir_value**);
-static void ast_goto_delete(ast_goto*);
-static void ast_call_delete(ast_call*);
-static bool ast_call_codegen(ast_call*, ast_function*, bool lvalue, ir_value**);
-static bool ast_block_codegen(ast_block*, ast_function*, bool lvalue, ir_value**);
-static void ast_unary_delete(ast_unary*);
-static bool ast_unary_codegen(ast_unary*, ast_function*, bool lvalue, ir_value**);
-static void ast_entfield_delete(ast_entfield*);
-static bool ast_entfield_codegen(ast_entfield*, ast_function*, bool lvalue, ir_value**);
-static void ast_return_delete(ast_return*);
-static bool ast_return_codegen(ast_return*, ast_function*, bool lvalue, ir_value**);
-static void ast_binstore_delete(ast_binstore*);
-static bool ast_binstore_codegen(ast_binstore*, ast_function*, bool lvalue, ir_value**);
-static void ast_binary_delete(ast_binary*);
-static bool ast_binary_codegen(ast_binary*, ast_function*, bool lvalue, ir_value**);
-static bool ast_state_codegen(ast_state*, ast_function*, bool lvalue, ir_value**);
-
-/* It must not be possible to get here. */
-static GMQCC_NORETURN void _ast_node_destroy(ast_node *self)
-{
-    (void)self;
-    con_err("ast node missing destroy()\n");
-    exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
+/* Initialize main ast node aprts */
+ast_node::ast_node(lex_ctx_t ctx, int node_type)
+    : m_context(ctx)
+    , m_node_type(node_type)
+    , m_keep_node(false)
+    , m_side_effects(false)
+{
 }
 
-/* Initialize main ast node aprts */
-static void ast_node_init(ast_node *self, lex_ctx_t ctx, int node_type)
+ast_node::~ast_node()
 {
-    self->context = ctx;
-    self->destroy      = &_ast_node_destroy;
-    self->keep_node    = false;
-    self->node_type    = node_type;
-    self->side_effects = false;
 }
 
 /* weight and side effects */
-static void _ast_propagate_effects(ast_node *self, ast_node *other)
+void ast_node::propagateSideEffects(const ast_node *other)
 {
-    if (ast_side_effects(other))
-        ast_side_effects(self) = true;
+    if (other->m_side_effects)
+        m_side_effects = true;
 }
-#define ast_propagate_effects(s,o) _ast_propagate_effects(((ast_node*)(s)), ((ast_node*)(o)))
 
 /* General expression initialization */
-static void ast_expression_init(ast_expression *self,
-                                ast_expression_codegen *codegen)
-{
-    self->codegen  = codegen;
-    self->vtype    = TYPE_VOID;
-    self->next     = nullptr;
-    self->outl     = nullptr;
-    self->outr     = nullptr;
-    self->count    = 0;
-    self->varparam = nullptr;
-    self->flags    = 0;
+ast_expression::ast_expression(lex_ctx_t ctx, int nodetype, qc_type type)
+    : ast_node(ctx, nodetype)
+    , m_vtype(type)
+{
     if (OPTS_OPTION_BOOL(OPTION_COVERAGE))
-        self->flags |= AST_FLAG_BLOCK_COVERAGE;
+        m_flags |= AST_FLAG_BLOCK_COVERAGE;
+    if (OPTS_FLAG(DEFAULT_ERASEABLE))
+        m_flags |= AST_FLAG_ERASEABLE;
 }
+ast_expression::ast_expression(lex_ctx_t ctx, int nodetype)
+    : ast_expression(ctx, nodetype, TYPE_VOID)
+{}
 
-static void ast_expression_delete(ast_expression *self)
+ast_expression::~ast_expression()
 {
-    if (self->next)
-        ast_delete(self->next);
-    for (auto &it : self->type_params)
-        ast_delete(it);
-    if (self->varparam)
-        ast_delete(self->varparam);
+    if (m_next)
+        delete m_next;
+    if (m_varparam)
+        delete m_varparam;
 }
 
-static void ast_expression_delete_full(ast_expression *self)
-{
-    ast_expression_delete(self);
-    mem_d(self);
-}
+ast_expression::ast_expression(ast_copy_type_t, const ast_expression &other)
+    : ast_expression(ast_copy_type, other.m_context, other)
+{}
 
-ast_value* ast_value_copy(const ast_value *self)
-{
-    ast_value *cp = ast_value_new(self->context, self->name, self->vtype);
-    if (self->next) {
-        cp->next = ast_type_copy(self->context, self->next);
-    }
-    const ast_expression *fromex = self;
-    ast_expression *selfex = cp;
-    selfex->count = fromex->count;
-    selfex->flags = fromex->flags;
-    for (auto &it : fromex->type_params) {
-        ast_value *v = ast_value_copy(it);
-        selfex->type_params.push_back(v);
-    }
-    return cp;
-}
+ast_expression::ast_expression(ast_copy_type_t, lex_ctx_t ctx, const ast_expression &other)
+    : ast_expression(ast_copy_type, TYPE_ast_expression, ctx, other)
+{}
 
-void ast_type_adopt_impl(ast_expression *self, const ast_expression *other)
-{
-    const ast_expression *fromex;
-    ast_expression *selfex;
-    self->vtype = other->vtype;
-    if (other->next) {
-        self->next = (ast_expression*)ast_type_copy(ast_ctx(self), other->next);
-    }
-    fromex = other;
-    selfex = self;
-    selfex->count = fromex->count;
-    selfex->flags = fromex->flags;
-    for (auto &it : fromex->type_params) {
-        ast_value *v = ast_value_copy(it);
-        selfex->type_params.push_back(v);
-    }
-}
+ast_expression::ast_expression(ast_copy_type_t, int nodetype, const ast_expression &other)
+    : ast_expression(ast_copy_type, nodetype, other.m_context, other)
+{}
 
-static ast_expression* ast_shallow_type(lex_ctx_t ctx, qc_type vtype)
+ast_expression::ast_expression(ast_copy_type_t, int nodetype, lex_ctx_t ctx, const ast_expression &other)
+    : ast_expression(ctx, nodetype)
 {
-    ast_instantiate(ast_expression, ctx, ast_expression_delete_full);
-    ast_expression_init(self, nullptr);
-    self->codegen = nullptr;
-    self->next    = nullptr;
-    self->vtype   = vtype;
-    return self;
+    m_vtype = other.m_vtype;
+    m_count = other.m_count;
+    m_flags = other.m_flags;
+    if (other.m_next)
+        m_next = new ast_expression(ast_copy_type, *other.m_next);
+    m_type_params.reserve(other.m_type_params.size());
+    for (auto &it : other.m_type_params)
+        m_type_params.emplace_back(new ast_value(ast_copy_type, *it));
 }
 
-ast_expression* ast_type_copy(lex_ctx_t ctx, const ast_expression *ex)
-{
-    const ast_expression *fromex;
-    ast_expression       *selfex;
-
-    if (!ex)
-        return nullptr;
-    else
-    {
-        ast_instantiate(ast_expression, ctx, ast_expression_delete_full);
-        ast_expression_init(self, nullptr);
-
-        fromex = ex;
-        selfex = self;
-
-        /* This may never be codegen()d */
-        selfex->codegen = nullptr;
 
-        selfex->vtype = fromex->vtype;
-        if (fromex->next)
-            selfex->next = ast_type_copy(ctx, fromex->next);
-        else
-            selfex->next = nullptr;
-
-        selfex->count = fromex->count;
-        selfex->flags = fromex->flags;
-        for (auto &it : fromex->type_params) {
-            ast_value *v = ast_value_copy(it);
-            selfex->type_params.push_back(v);
-        }
+ast_expression *ast_expression::shallowType(lex_ctx_t ctx, qc_type vtype) {
+    auto expr = new ast_expression(ctx, TYPE_ast_expression);
+    expr->m_vtype = vtype;
+    return expr;
+}
 
-        return self;
-    }
+void ast_expression::adoptType(const ast_expression &other)
+{
+    m_vtype = other.m_vtype;
+    if (other.m_next)
+        m_next = new ast_expression(ast_copy_type, *other.m_next);
+    m_count = other.m_count;
+    m_flags = other.m_flags;
+    m_type_params.clear();
+    m_type_params.reserve(other.m_type_params.size());
+    for (auto &it : other.m_type_params)
+        m_type_params.emplace_back(new ast_value(ast_copy_type, *it));
 }
 
-bool ast_compare_type(ast_expression *a, ast_expression *b)
+bool ast_expression::compareType(const ast_expression &other) const
 {
-    if (a->vtype == TYPE_NIL ||
-        b->vtype == TYPE_NIL)
+    if (m_vtype == TYPE_NIL ||
+        other.m_vtype == TYPE_NIL)
         return true;
-    if (a->vtype != b->vtype)
+    if (m_vtype != other.m_vtype)
         return false;
-    if (!a->next != !b->next)
+    if (!m_next != !other.m_next)
         return false;
-    if (a->type_params.size() != b->type_params.size())
+    if (m_type_params.size() != other.m_type_params.size())
         return false;
-    if ((a->flags & AST_FLAG_TYPE_MASK) !=
-        (b->flags & AST_FLAG_TYPE_MASK) )
+    if ((m_flags & AST_FLAG_TYPE_MASK) !=
+        (other.m_flags & AST_FLAG_TYPE_MASK) )
     {
         return false;
     }
-    if (a->type_params.size()) {
+    if (m_type_params.size()) {
         size_t i;
-        for (i = 0; i < a->type_params.size(); ++i) {
-            if (!ast_compare_type((ast_expression*)a->type_params[i],
-                                  (ast_expression*)b->type_params[i]))
+        for (i = 0; i < m_type_params.size(); ++i) {
+            if (!m_type_params[i]->compareType(*other.m_type_params[i]))
                 return false;
         }
     }
-    if (a->next)
-        return ast_compare_type(a->next, b->next);
+    if (m_next)
+        return m_next->compareType(*other.m_next);
     return true;
 }
 
-static size_t ast_type_to_string_impl(ast_expression *e, char *buf, size_t bufsize, size_t pos)
+bool ast_expression::codegen(ast_function*, bool, ir_value**) {
+    compile_error(m_context, "ast_expression::codegen called!");
+    abort();
+    return false;
+}
+
+ast_value::ast_value(ast_copy_type_t, const ast_value &other, const std::string &name)
+    : ast_value(ast_copy_type, static_cast<const ast_expression&>(other), name)
+{
+    m_keep_node = true; // keep values, always
+    memset(&m_constval, 0, sizeof(m_constval));
+}
+
+ast_value::ast_value(ast_copy_type_t, const ast_value &other)
+    : ast_value(ast_copy_type, static_cast<const ast_expression&>(other), other.m_name)
+{
+    m_keep_node = true; // keep values, always
+    memset(&m_constval, 0, sizeof(m_constval));
+}
+
+ast_value::ast_value(ast_copy_type_t, const ast_expression &other, const std::string &name)
+    : ast_expression(ast_copy_type, TYPE_ast_value, other)
+    , m_name(name)
+{
+    m_keep_node = true; // keep values, always
+    memset(&m_constval, 0, sizeof(m_constval));
+}
+
+ast_value::ast_value(lex_ctx_t ctx, const std::string &name, qc_type t)
+    : ast_expression(ctx, TYPE_ast_value, t)
+    , m_name(name)
+{
+    m_keep_node = true; // keep values, always
+    memset(&m_constval, 0, sizeof(m_constval));
+}
+
+ast_value::~ast_value()
+{
+    if (m_argcounter)
+        mem_d((void*)m_argcounter);
+    if (m_hasvalue) {
+        switch (m_vtype)
+        {
+        case TYPE_STRING:
+            mem_d((void*)m_constval.vstring);
+            break;
+        case TYPE_FUNCTION:
+            // unlink us from the function node
+            m_constval.vfunc->m_function_type = nullptr;
+            break;
+        // NOTE: delete function? currently collected in
+        // the parser structure
+        default:
+            break;
+        }
+    }
+
+    // initlist imples an array which implies .next in the expression exists.
+    if (m_initlist.size() && m_next->m_vtype == TYPE_STRING) {
+        for (auto &it : m_initlist)
+            if (it.vstring)
+                mem_d(it.vstring);
+    }
+}
+
+static size_t ast_type_to_string_impl(const ast_expression *e, char *buf, size_t bufsize, size_t pos)
 {
     const char *typestr;
     size_t typelen;
@@ -243,43 +206,43 @@ static size_t ast_type_to_string_impl(ast_expression *e, char *buf, size_t bufsi
     if (pos + 1 >= bufsize)
         goto full;
 
-    switch (e->vtype) {
+    switch (e->m_vtype) {
         case TYPE_VARIANT:
             util_strncpy(buf + pos, "(variant)", 9);
             return pos + 9;
 
         case TYPE_FIELD:
             buf[pos++] = '.';
-            return ast_type_to_string_impl(e->next, buf, bufsize, pos);
+            return ast_type_to_string_impl(e->m_next, buf, bufsize, pos);
 
         case TYPE_POINTER:
             if (pos + 3 >= bufsize)
                 goto full;
             buf[pos++] = '*';
             buf[pos++] = '(';
-            pos = ast_type_to_string_impl(e->next, buf, bufsize, pos);
+            pos = ast_type_to_string_impl(e->m_next, buf, bufsize, pos);
             if (pos + 1 >= bufsize)
                 goto full;
             buf[pos++] = ')';
             return pos;
 
         case TYPE_FUNCTION:
-            pos = ast_type_to_string_impl(e->next, buf, bufsize, pos);
+            pos = ast_type_to_string_impl(e->m_next, buf, bufsize, pos);
             if (pos + 2 >= bufsize)
                 goto full;
-            if (e->type_params.empty()) {
+            if (e->m_type_params.empty()) {
                 buf[pos++] = '(';
                 buf[pos++] = ')';
                 return pos;
             }
             buf[pos++] = '(';
-            pos = ast_type_to_string_impl((ast_expression*)(e->type_params[0]), buf, bufsize, pos);
-            for (i = 1; i < e->type_params.size(); ++i) {
+            pos = ast_type_to_string_impl(e->m_type_params[0].get(), buf, bufsize, pos);
+            for (i = 1; i < e->m_type_params.size(); ++i) {
                 if (pos + 2 >= bufsize)
                     goto full;
                 buf[pos++] = ',';
                 buf[pos++] = ' ';
-                pos = ast_type_to_string_impl((ast_expression*)(e->type_params[i]), buf, bufsize, pos);
+                pos = ast_type_to_string_impl(e->m_type_params[i].get(), buf, bufsize, pos);
             }
             if (pos + 1 >= bufsize)
                 goto full;
@@ -287,18 +250,18 @@ static size_t ast_type_to_string_impl(ast_expression *e, char *buf, size_t bufsi
             return pos;
 
         case TYPE_ARRAY:
-            pos = ast_type_to_string_impl(e->next, buf, bufsize, pos);
+            pos = ast_type_to_string_impl(e->m_next, buf, bufsize, pos);
             if (pos + 1 >= bufsize)
                 goto full;
             buf[pos++] = '[';
-            pos += util_snprintf(buf + pos, bufsize - pos - 1, "%i", (int)e->count);
+            pos += util_snprintf(buf + pos, bufsize - pos - 1, "%i", (int)e->m_count);
             if (pos + 1 >= bufsize)
                 goto full;
             buf[pos++] = ']';
             return pos;
 
         default:
-            typestr = type_name[e->vtype];
+            typestr = type_name[e->m_vtype];
             typelen = strlen(typestr);
             if (pos + typelen >= bufsize)
                 goto full;
@@ -313,111 +276,30 @@ full:
     return bufsize;
 }
 
-void ast_type_to_string(ast_expression *e, char *buf, size_t bufsize)
+void ast_type_to_string(const ast_expression *e, char *buf, size_t bufsize)
 {
     size_t pos = ast_type_to_string_impl(e, buf, bufsize-1, 0);
     buf[pos] = 0;
 }
 
-static bool ast_value_codegen(ast_value *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out);
-ast_value* ast_value_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, const char *name, qc_type t)
-{
-    ast_instantiate(ast_value, ctx, ast_value_delete);
-    ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self,
-                        (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_value_codegen);
-    self->keep_node = true; /* keep */
-
-    self->name = name ? util_strdup(name) : nullptr;
-    self->vtype    = t;
-    self->next     = nullptr;
-    self->isfield  = false;
-    self->cvq      = CV_NONE;
-    self->hasvalue = false;
-    self->isimm    = false;
-    self->inexact  = false;
-    self->uses     = 0;
-    memset(&self->constval, 0, sizeof(self->constval));
-
-    self->ir_v           = nullptr;
-    self->ir_values      = nullptr;
-    self->ir_value_count = 0;
-
-    self->setter = nullptr;
-    self->getter = nullptr;
-    self->desc   = nullptr;
-
-    self->argcounter = nullptr;
-    self->intrinsic = false;
-
-    return self;
-}
-
-void ast_value_delete(ast_value* self)
-{
-    if (self->name)
-        mem_d((void*)self->name);
-    if (self->argcounter)
-        mem_d((void*)self->argcounter);
-    if (self->hasvalue) {
-        switch (self->vtype)
-        {
-        case TYPE_STRING:
-            mem_d((void*)self->constval.vstring);
-            break;
-        case TYPE_FUNCTION:
-            /* unlink us from the function node */
-            self->constval.vfunc->function_type = nullptr;
-            break;
-        /* NOTE: delete function? currently collected in
-         * the parser structure
-         */
-        default:
-            break;
-        }
-    }
-    if (self->ir_values)
-        mem_d(self->ir_values);
-
-    if (self->desc)
-        mem_d(self->desc);
-
-    // initlist imples an array which implies .next in the expression exists.
-    if (self->initlist.size() && self->next->vtype == TYPE_STRING) {
-        for (auto &it : self->initlist)
-            if (it.vstring)
-                mem_d(it.vstring);
-    }
-
-    ast_expression_delete((ast_expression*)self);
-    self->~ast_value();
-    mem_d(self);
-}
-
-void ast_value_params_add(ast_value *self, ast_value *p)
+void ast_value::addParam(ast_value *p)
 {
-    self->type_params.push_back(p);
+    m_type_params.emplace_back(p);
 }
 
-bool ast_value_set_name(ast_value *self, const char *name)
+ast_binary::ast_binary(lex_ctx_t ctx, int op,
+                       ast_expression* left, ast_expression* right)
+    : ast_expression(ctx, TYPE_ast_binary)
+    , m_op(op)
+    // m_left/m_right happen after the peephole step right below
+    , m_right_first(false)
 {
-    if (self->name)
-        mem_d((void*)self->name);
-    self->name = util_strdup(name);
-    return !!self->name;
-}
-
-ast_binary* ast_binary_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, int op,
-                           ast_expression* left, ast_expression* right)
-{
-    ast_instantiate(ast_binary, ctx, ast_binary_delete);
-    ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_binary_codegen);
-
     if (ast_istype(right, ast_unary) && OPTS_OPTIMIZATION(OPTIM_PEEPHOLE)) {
         ast_unary      *unary  = ((ast_unary*)right);
-        ast_expression *normal = unary->operand;
+        ast_expression *normal = unary->m_operand;
 
         /* make a-(-b) => a + b */
-        if (unary->op == VINSTR_NEG_F || unary->op == VINSTR_NEG_V) {
+        if (unary->m_op == VINSTR_NEG_F || unary->m_op == VINSTR_NEG_V) {
             if (op == INSTR_SUB_F) {
                 op = INSTR_ADD_F;
                 right = normal;
@@ -430,603 +312,480 @@ ast_binary* ast_binary_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, int op,
         }
     }
 
-    self->op = op;
-    self->left = left;
-    self->right = right;
-    self->right_first = false;
+    m_left = left;
+    m_right = right;
 
-    ast_propagate_effects(self, left);
-    ast_propagate_effects(self, right);
+    propagateSideEffects(left);
+    propagateSideEffects(right);
 
     if (op >= INSTR_EQ_F && op <= INSTR_GT)
-        self->vtype = TYPE_FLOAT;
+        m_vtype = TYPE_FLOAT;
     else if (op == INSTR_AND || op == INSTR_OR) {
         if (OPTS_FLAG(PERL_LOGIC))
-            ast_type_adopt(self, right);
+            adoptType(*right);
         else
-            self->vtype = TYPE_FLOAT;
+            m_vtype = TYPE_FLOAT;
     }
     else if (op == INSTR_BITAND || op == INSTR_BITOR)
-        self->vtype = TYPE_FLOAT;
+        m_vtype = TYPE_FLOAT;
     else if (op == INSTR_MUL_VF || op == INSTR_MUL_FV)
-        self->vtype = TYPE_VECTOR;
+        m_vtype = TYPE_VECTOR;
     else if (op == INSTR_MUL_V)
-        self->vtype = TYPE_FLOAT;
+        m_vtype = TYPE_FLOAT;
     else
-        self->vtype = left->vtype;
-
-    /* references all */
-    self->refs = AST_REF_ALL;
+        m_vtype = left->m_vtype;
 
-    return self;
+    // references all
+    m_refs = AST_REF_ALL;
 }
 
-void ast_binary_delete(ast_binary *self)
+ast_binary::~ast_binary()
 {
-    if (self->refs & AST_REF_LEFT)  ast_unref(self->left);
-    if (self->refs & AST_REF_RIGHT) ast_unref(self->right);
-
-    ast_expression_delete((ast_expression*)self);
-    self->~ast_binary();
-    mem_d(self);
+    if (m_refs & AST_REF_LEFT)  ast_unref(m_left);
+    if (m_refs & AST_REF_RIGHT) ast_unref(m_right);
 }
 
-ast_binstore* ast_binstore_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, int storop, int op,
-                               ast_expression* left, ast_expression* right)
+ast_binstore::ast_binstore(lex_ctx_t ctx, int storop, int mathop,
+                           ast_expression* left, ast_expression* right)
+    : ast_expression(ctx, TYPE_ast_binstore)
+    , m_opstore(storop)
+    , m_opbin(mathop)
+    , m_dest(left)
+    , m_source(right)
+    , m_keep_dest(false)
 {
-    ast_instantiate(ast_binstore, ctx, ast_binstore_delete);
-    ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_binstore_codegen);
-
-    ast_side_effects(self) = true;
-
-    self->opstore = storop;
-    self->opbin   = op;
-    self->dest    = left;
-    self->source  = right;
-
-    self->keep_dest = false;
-
-    ast_type_adopt(self, left);
-    return self;
+    m_side_effects = true;
+    adoptType(*left);
 }
 
-void ast_binstore_delete(ast_binstore *self)
+ast_binstore::~ast_binstore()
 {
-    if (!self->keep_dest)
-        ast_unref(self->dest);
-    ast_unref(self->source);
-    ast_expression_delete((ast_expression*)self);
-    self->~ast_binstore();
-    mem_d(self);
+    if (!m_keep_dest)
+        ast_unref(m_dest);
+    ast_unref(m_source);
 }
 
-ast_unary* ast_unary_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, int op,
-                         ast_expression *expr)
+ast_unary* ast_unary::make(lex_ctx_t ctx, int op, ast_expression *expr)
 {
-    ast_instantiate(ast_unary, ctx, ast_unary_delete);
-    ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_unary_codegen);
-
-    self->op      = op;
-    self->operand = expr;
-
-
-    if (ast_istype(expr, ast_unary) && OPTS_OPTIMIZATION(OPTIM_PEEPHOLE)) {
-        ast_unary *prev = (ast_unary*)((ast_unary*)expr)->operand;
-
-        /* Handle for double negation */
-        if (((ast_unary*)expr)->op == op)
-            prev = (ast_unary*)((ast_unary*)expr)->operand;
-
-        if (ast_istype(prev, ast_unary)) {
-            ast_expression_delete((ast_expression*)self);
-            mem_d(self);
-            ++opts_optimizationcount[OPTIM_PEEPHOLE];
-            return prev;
+    // handle double negation, double bitwise or logical not
+    if (op == opid2('!','P') ||
+        op == opid2('~','P') ||
+        op == opid2('-','P'))
+    {
+        if (ast_istype(expr, ast_unary) && OPTS_OPTIMIZATION(OPTIM_PEEPHOLE)) {
+            ast_unary *unary = reinterpret_cast<ast_unary*>(expr);
+            if (unary->m_op == op) {
+                auto out = reinterpret_cast<ast_unary*>(unary->m_operand);
+                unary->m_operand = nullptr;
+                delete unary;
+                ++opts_optimizationcount[OPTIM_PEEPHOLE];
+                return out;
+            }
         }
     }
 
-    ast_propagate_effects(self, expr);
+    return new ast_unary(ctx, op, expr);
+}
 
+ast_unary::ast_unary(lex_ctx_t ctx, int op, ast_expression *expr)
+    : ast_expression(ctx, TYPE_ast_unary)
+    , m_op(op)
+    , m_operand(expr)
+{
+    propagateSideEffects(expr);
     if ((op >= INSTR_NOT_F && op <= INSTR_NOT_FNC) || op == VINSTR_NEG_F) {
-        self->vtype = TYPE_FLOAT;
+        m_vtype = TYPE_FLOAT;
     } else if (op == VINSTR_NEG_V) {
-        self->vtype = TYPE_VECTOR;
+        m_vtype = TYPE_VECTOR;
     } else {
         compile_error(ctx, "cannot determine type of unary operation %s", util_instr_str[op]);
     }
-
-    return self;
 }
 
-void ast_unary_delete(ast_unary *self)
+ast_unary::~ast_unary()
 {
-    if (self->operand) ast_unref(self->operand);
-    ast_expression_delete((ast_expression*)self);
-    self->~ast_unary();
-    mem_d(self);
+    if (m_operand)
+        ast_unref(m_operand);
 }
 
-ast_return* ast_return_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *expr)
+ast_return::ast_return(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *expr)
+    : ast_expression(ctx, TYPE_ast_return)
+    , m_operand(expr)
 {
-    ast_instantiate(ast_return, ctx, ast_return_delete);
-    ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_return_codegen);
-
-    self->operand = expr;
-
     if (expr)
-        ast_propagate_effects(self, expr);
-
-    return self;
+        propagateSideEffects(expr);
 }
 
-void ast_return_delete(ast_return *self)
+ast_return::~ast_return()
 {
-    if (self->operand)
-        ast_unref(self->operand);
-    ast_expression_delete((ast_expression*)self);
-    self->~ast_return();
-    mem_d(self);
+    if (m_operand)
+        ast_unref(m_operand);
 }
 
-ast_entfield* ast_entfield_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *entity, ast_expression *field)
+ast_entfield::ast_entfield(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *entity, ast_expression *field)
+    : ast_entfield(ctx, entity, field, field->m_next)
 {
-    if (field->vtype != TYPE_FIELD) {
-        compile_error(ctx, "ast_entfield_new with expression not of type field");
-        return nullptr;
-    }
-    return ast_entfield_new_force(ctx, entity, field, field->next);
+    if (field->m_vtype != TYPE_FIELD)
+        compile_error(ctx, "ast_entfield with expression not of type field");
 }
 
-ast_entfield* ast_entfield_new_force(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *entity, ast_expression *field, const ast_expression *outtype)
+ast_entfield::ast_entfield(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *entity, ast_expression *field, const ast_expression *outtype)
+    : ast_expression(ctx, TYPE_ast_entfield)
+    , m_entity(entity)
+    , m_field(field)
 {
-    ast_instantiate(ast_entfield, ctx, ast_entfield_delete);
+    propagateSideEffects(m_entity);
+    propagateSideEffects(m_field);
 
     if (!outtype) {
-        mem_d(self);
-        /* Error: field has no type... */
-        return nullptr;
+        compile_error(ctx, "ast_entfield: field has no type");
+        m_vtype = TYPE_VOID;
     }
-
-    ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_entfield_codegen);
-
-    self->entity = entity;
-    self->field  = field;
-    ast_propagate_effects(self, entity);
-    ast_propagate_effects(self, field);
-
-    ast_type_adopt(self, outtype);
-    return self;
+    else
+        adoptType(*outtype);
 }
 
-void ast_entfield_delete(ast_entfield *self)
+ast_entfield::~ast_entfield()
 {
-    ast_unref(self->entity);
-    ast_unref(self->field);
-    ast_expression_delete((ast_expression*)self);
-    self->~ast_entfield();
-    mem_d(self);
+    ast_unref(m_entity);
+    ast_unref(m_field);
 }
 
-ast_member* ast_member_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *owner, unsigned int field, const char *name)
+ast_member *ast_member::make(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *owner, unsigned int field, const std::string &name)
 {
-    ast_instantiate(ast_member, ctx, ast_member_delete);
     if (field >= 3) {
-        mem_d(self);
+        compile_error(ctx, "ast_member: invalid field (>=3): %u", field);
         return nullptr;
     }
-
-    if (owner->vtype != TYPE_VECTOR &&
-        owner->vtype != TYPE_FIELD) {
-        compile_error(ctx, "member-access on an invalid owner of type %s", type_name[owner->vtype]);
-        mem_d(self);
+    if (owner->m_vtype != TYPE_VECTOR &&
+        owner->m_vtype != TYPE_FIELD)
+    {
+        compile_error(ctx, "member-access on an invalid owner of type %s", type_name[owner->m_vtype]);
         return nullptr;
     }
+    return new ast_member(ctx, owner, field, name);
+}
 
-    ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_member_codegen);
-    self->keep_node = true; /* keep */
+ast_member::ast_member(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *owner, unsigned int field, const std::string &name)
+    : ast_expression(ctx, TYPE_ast_member)
+    , m_owner(owner)
+    , m_field(field)
+    , m_name(name)
+    , m_rvalue(false)
+{
+    m_keep_node = true;
 
-    if (owner->vtype == TYPE_VECTOR) {
-        self->vtype = TYPE_FLOAT;
-        self->next  = nullptr;
+    if (m_owner->m_vtype == TYPE_VECTOR) {
+        m_vtype = TYPE_FLOAT;
+        m_next  = nullptr;
     } else {
-        self->vtype = TYPE_FIELD;
-        self->next = ast_shallow_type(ctx, TYPE_FLOAT);
+        m_vtype = TYPE_FIELD;
+        m_next = ast_expression::shallowType(ctx, TYPE_FLOAT);
     }
 
-    self->rvalue = false;
-    self->owner  = owner;
-    ast_propagate_effects(self, owner);
-
-    self->field = field;
-    if (name)
-        self->name = util_strdup(name);
-    else
-        self->name = nullptr;
-
-    return self;
-}
-
-void ast_member_delete(ast_member *self)
-{
-    /* The owner is always an ast_value, which has .keep_node=true,
-     * also: ast_members are usually deleted after the owner, thus
-     * this will cause invalid access
-    ast_unref(self->owner);
-     * once we allow (expression).x to access a vector-member, we need
-     * to change this: preferably by creating an alternate ast node for this
-     * purpose that is not garbage-collected.
-    */
-    ast_expression_delete((ast_expression*)self);
-    mem_d(self->name);
-    self->~ast_member();
-    mem_d(self);
+    propagateSideEffects(owner);
 }
 
-bool ast_member_set_name(ast_member *self, const char *name)
+ast_member::~ast_member()
 {
-    if (self->name)
-        mem_d((void*)self->name);
-    self->name = util_strdup(name);
-    return !!self->name;
+    // The owner is always an ast_value, which has .keep_node=true,
+    // also: ast_members are usually deleted after the owner, thus
+    // this will cause invalid access
+        //ast_unref(self->m_owner);
+    // once we allow (expression).x to access a vector-member, we need
+    // to change this: preferably by creating an alternate ast node for this
+    // purpose that is not garbage-collected.
 }
 
-ast_array_index* ast_array_index_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *array, ast_expression *index)
+ast_array_index* ast_array_index::make(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *array, ast_expression *index)
 {
-    ast_expression *outtype;
-    ast_instantiate(ast_array_index, ctx, ast_array_index_delete);
-
-    outtype = array->next;
+    ast_expression *outtype = array->m_next;
     if (!outtype) {
-        mem_d(self);
-        /* Error: field has no type... */
+        // field has no type
         return nullptr;
     }
 
-    ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_array_index_codegen);
+    return new ast_array_index(ctx, array, index);
+}
+
+ast_array_index::ast_array_index(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *array, ast_expression *index)
+    : ast_expression(ctx, TYPE_ast_array_index)
+    , m_array(array)
+    , m_index(index)
+{
+    propagateSideEffects(array);
+    propagateSideEffects(index);
 
-    self->array = array;
-    self->index = index;
-    ast_propagate_effects(self, array);
-    ast_propagate_effects(self, index);
+    ast_expression *outtype = m_array->m_next;
+    adoptType(*outtype);
 
-    ast_type_adopt(self, outtype);
-    if (array->vtype == TYPE_FIELD && outtype->vtype == TYPE_ARRAY) {
-        if (self->vtype != TYPE_ARRAY) {
-            compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "array_index node on type");
-            ast_array_index_delete(self);
-            return nullptr;
-        }
-        self->array = outtype;
-        self->vtype = TYPE_FIELD;
+    if (array->m_vtype == TYPE_FIELD && outtype->m_vtype == TYPE_ARRAY) {
+        // FIXME: investigate - this is not possible after adoptType
+        //if (m_vtype != TYPE_ARRAY) {
+        //    compile_error(self->m_context, "array_index node on type");
+        //    ast_array_index_delete(self);
+        //    return nullptr;
+        //}
+
+        m_array = outtype;
+        m_vtype = TYPE_FIELD;
     }
+}
 
-    return self;
+ast_array_index::~ast_array_index()
+{
+    if (m_array)
+        ast_unref(m_array);
+    if (m_index)
+        ast_unref(m_index);
 }
 
-void ast_array_index_delete(ast_array_index *self)
+ast_argpipe::ast_argpipe(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *index)
+    : ast_expression(ctx, TYPE_ast_argpipe)
+    , m_index(index)
 {
-    if (self->array)
-        ast_unref(self->array);
-    if (self->index)
-        ast_unref(self->index);
-    ast_expression_delete((ast_expression*)self);
-    mem_d(self);
+    m_vtype = TYPE_NOEXPR;
 }
 
-ast_argpipe* ast_argpipe_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *index)
+ast_argpipe::~ast_argpipe()
 {
-    ast_instantiate(ast_argpipe, ctx, ast_argpipe_delete);
-    ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_argpipe_codegen);
-    self->index = index;
-    self->vtype = TYPE_NOEXPR;
-    return self;
+    if (m_index)
+        ast_unref(m_index);
 }
 
-void ast_argpipe_delete(ast_argpipe *self)
+ast_store::ast_store(lex_ctx_t ctx, int op, ast_expression *dest, ast_expression *source)
+    : ast_expression(ctx, TYPE_ast_store)
+    , m_op(op)
+    , m_dest(dest)
+    , m_source(source)
 {
-    if (self->index)
-        ast_unref(self->index);
-    ast_expression_delete((ast_expression*)self);
-    self->~ast_argpipe();
-    mem_d(self);
+    m_side_effects = true;
+    adoptType(*dest);
 }
 
-ast_ifthen* ast_ifthen_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *cond, ast_expression *ontrue, ast_expression *onfalse)
+ast_store::~ast_store()
 {
-    ast_instantiate(ast_ifthen, ctx, ast_ifthen_delete);
-    if (!ontrue && !onfalse) {
-        /* because it is invalid */
-        mem_d(self);
-        return nullptr;
-    }
-    ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_ifthen_codegen);
+    ast_unref(m_dest);
+    ast_unref(m_source);
+}
 
-    self->cond     = cond;
-    self->on_true  = ontrue;
-    self->on_false = onfalse;
-    ast_propagate_effects(self, cond);
+ast_ifthen::ast_ifthen(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *cond, ast_expression *ontrue, ast_expression *onfalse)
+    : ast_expression(ctx, TYPE_ast_ifthen)
+    , m_cond(cond)
+    , m_on_true(ontrue)
+    , m_on_false(onfalse)
+{
+    propagateSideEffects(cond);
     if (ontrue)
-        ast_propagate_effects(self, ontrue);
+        propagateSideEffects(ontrue);
     if (onfalse)
-        ast_propagate_effects(self, onfalse);
-
-    return self;
+        propagateSideEffects(onfalse);
 }
 
-void ast_ifthen_delete(ast_ifthen *self)
+ast_ifthen::~ast_ifthen()
 {
-    ast_unref(self->cond);
-    if (self->on_true)
-        ast_unref(self->on_true);
-    if (self->on_false)
-        ast_unref(self->on_false);
-    ast_expression_delete((ast_expression*)self);
-    self->~ast_ifthen();
-    mem_d(self);
+    ast_unref(m_cond);
+    if (m_on_true)
+        ast_unref(m_on_true);
+    if (m_on_false)
+        ast_unref(m_on_false);
 }
 
-ast_ternary* ast_ternary_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *cond, ast_expression *ontrue, ast_expression *onfalse)
+ast_ternary::ast_ternary(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *cond, ast_expression *ontrue, ast_expression *onfalse)
+    : ast_expression(ctx, TYPE_ast_ternary)
+    , m_cond(cond)
+    , m_on_true(ontrue)
+    , m_on_false(onfalse)
 {
-    ast_expression *exprtype = ontrue;
-    ast_instantiate(ast_ternary, ctx, ast_ternary_delete);
-    /* This time NEITHER must be nullptr */
-    if (!ontrue || !onfalse) {
-        mem_d(self);
-        return nullptr;
-    }
-    ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_ternary_codegen);
-
-    self->cond     = cond;
-    self->on_true  = ontrue;
-    self->on_false = onfalse;
-    ast_propagate_effects(self, cond);
-    ast_propagate_effects(self, ontrue);
-    ast_propagate_effects(self, onfalse);
+    propagateSideEffects(cond);
+    propagateSideEffects(ontrue);
+    propagateSideEffects(onfalse);
 
-    if (ontrue->vtype == TYPE_NIL)
-        exprtype = onfalse;
-    ast_type_adopt(self, exprtype);
-
-    return self;
+    if (ontrue->m_vtype == TYPE_NIL)
+        adoptType(*onfalse);
+    else
+        adoptType(*ontrue);
 }
 
-void ast_ternary_delete(ast_ternary *self)
+ast_ternary::~ast_ternary()
 {
     /* the if()s are only there because computed-gotos can set them
      * to nullptr
      */
-    if (self->cond)     ast_unref(self->cond);
-    if (self->on_true)  ast_unref(self->on_true);
-    if (self->on_false) ast_unref(self->on_false);
-    ast_expression_delete((ast_expression*)self);
-    self->~ast_ternary();
-    mem_d(self);
-}
-
-ast_loop* ast_loop_new(lex_ctx_t ctx,
-                       ast_expression *initexpr,
-                       ast_expression *precond, bool pre_not,
-                       ast_expression *postcond, bool post_not,
-                       ast_expression *increment,
-                       ast_expression *body)
+    if (m_cond)     ast_unref(m_cond);
+    if (m_on_true)  ast_unref(m_on_true);
+    if (m_on_false) ast_unref(m_on_false);
+}
+
+ast_loop::ast_loop(lex_ctx_t ctx,
+                   ast_expression *initexpr,
+                   ast_expression *precond, bool pre_not,
+                   ast_expression *postcond, bool post_not,
+                   ast_expression *increment,
+                   ast_expression *body)
+    : ast_expression(ctx, TYPE_ast_loop)
+    , m_initexpr(initexpr)
+    , m_precond(precond)
+    , m_postcond(postcond)
+    , m_increment(increment)
+    , m_body(body)
+    , m_pre_not(pre_not)
+    , m_post_not(post_not)
 {
-    ast_instantiate(ast_loop, ctx, ast_loop_delete);
-    ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_loop_codegen);
-
-    self->initexpr  = initexpr;
-    self->precond   = precond;
-    self->postcond  = postcond;
-    self->increment = increment;
-    self->body      = body;
-
-    self->pre_not   = pre_not;
-    self->post_not  = post_not;
-
     if (initexpr)
-        ast_propagate_effects(self, initexpr);
+        propagateSideEffects(initexpr);
     if (precond)
-        ast_propagate_effects(self, precond);
+        propagateSideEffects(precond);
     if (postcond)
-        ast_propagate_effects(self, postcond);
+        propagateSideEffects(postcond);
     if (increment)
-        ast_propagate_effects(self, increment);
+        propagateSideEffects(increment);
     if (body)
-        ast_propagate_effects(self, body);
-
-    return self;
+        propagateSideEffects(body);
 }
 
-void ast_loop_delete(ast_loop *self)
+ast_loop::~ast_loop()
 {
-    if (self->initexpr)
-        ast_unref(self->initexpr);
-    if (self->precond)
-        ast_unref(self->precond);
-    if (self->postcond)
-        ast_unref(self->postcond);
-    if (self->increment)
-        ast_unref(self->increment);
-    if (self->body)
-        ast_unref(self->body);
-    ast_expression_delete((ast_expression*)self);
-    self->~ast_loop();
-    mem_d(self);
+    if (m_initexpr)
+        ast_unref(m_initexpr);
+    if (m_precond)
+        ast_unref(m_precond);
+    if (m_postcond)
+        ast_unref(m_postcond);
+    if (m_increment)
+        ast_unref(m_increment);
+    if (m_body)
+        ast_unref(m_body);
 }
 
-ast_breakcont* ast_breakcont_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, bool iscont, unsigned int levels)
+ast_breakcont::ast_breakcont(lex_ctx_t ctx, bool iscont, unsigned int levels)
+    : ast_expression(ctx, TYPE_ast_breakcont)
+    , m_is_continue(iscont)
+    , m_levels(levels)
 {
-    ast_instantiate(ast_breakcont, ctx, ast_breakcont_delete);
-    ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_breakcont_codegen);
-
-    self->is_continue = iscont;
-    self->levels      = levels;
-
-    return self;
 }
 
-void ast_breakcont_delete(ast_breakcont *self)
+ast_breakcont::~ast_breakcont()
 {
-    ast_expression_delete((ast_expression*)self);
-    self->~ast_breakcont();
-    mem_d(self);
 }
 
-ast_switch* ast_switch_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *op)
+ast_switch::ast_switch(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *op)
+    : ast_expression(ctx, TYPE_ast_switch)
+    , m_operand(op)
 {
-    ast_instantiate(ast_switch, ctx, ast_switch_delete);
-    ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_switch_codegen);
-
-    self->operand = op;
-
-    ast_propagate_effects(self, op);
-
-    return self;
+    propagateSideEffects(op);
 }
 
-void ast_switch_delete(ast_switch *self)
+ast_switch::~ast_switch()
 {
-    ast_unref(self->operand);
+    ast_unref(m_operand);
 
-    for (auto &it : self->cases) {
-        if (it.value)
-            ast_unref(it.value);
-        ast_unref(it.code);
+    for (auto &it : m_cases) {
+        if (it.m_value)
+            ast_unref(it.m_value);
+        ast_unref(it.m_code);
     }
-
-    ast_expression_delete((ast_expression*)self);
-    self->~ast_switch();
-    mem_d(self);
 }
 
-ast_label* ast_label_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, const char *name, bool undefined)
+ast_label::ast_label(lex_ctx_t ctx, const std::string &name, bool undefined)
+    : ast_expression(ctx, TYPE_ast_label)
+    , m_name(name)
+    , m_irblock(nullptr)
+    , m_undefined(undefined)
 {
-    ast_instantiate(ast_label, ctx, ast_label_delete);
-    ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_label_codegen);
-
-    self->vtype = TYPE_NOEXPR;
-
-    self->name      = util_strdup(name);
-    self->irblock   = nullptr;
-    self->undefined = undefined;
-
-    return self;
+    m_vtype = TYPE_NOEXPR;
 }
 
-void ast_label_delete(ast_label *self)
+ast_label::~ast_label()
 {
-    mem_d((void*)self->name);
-    ast_expression_delete((ast_expression*)self);
-    self->~ast_label();
-    mem_d(self);
 }
 
-static void ast_label_register_goto(ast_label *self, ast_goto *g)
+void ast_label::registerGoto(ast_goto *g)
 {
-   self->gotos.push_back(g);
+   m_gotos.push_back(g);
 }
 
-ast_goto* ast_goto_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, const char *name)
+ast_goto::ast_goto(lex_ctx_t ctx, const std::string &name)
+    : ast_expression(ctx, TYPE_ast_goto)
+    , m_name(name)
+    , m_target(nullptr)
+    , m_irblock_from(nullptr)
 {
-    ast_instantiate(ast_goto, ctx, ast_goto_delete);
-    ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_goto_codegen);
-
-    self->name    = util_strdup(name);
-    self->target  = nullptr;
-    self->irblock_from = nullptr;
-
-    return self;
 }
 
-void ast_goto_delete(ast_goto *self)
+ast_goto::~ast_goto()
 {
-    mem_d((void*)self->name);
-    ast_expression_delete((ast_expression*)self);
-    self->~ast_goto();
-    mem_d(self);
 }
 
-void ast_goto_set_label(ast_goto *self, ast_label *label)
+void ast_goto::setLabel(ast_label *label)
 {
-    self->target = label;
+    m_target = label;
 }
 
-ast_state* ast_state_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *frame, ast_expression *think)
+ast_state::ast_state(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *frame, ast_expression *think)
+    : ast_expression(ctx, TYPE_ast_expression)
+    , m_framenum(frame)
+    , m_nextthink(think)
 {
-    ast_instantiate(ast_state, ctx, ast_state_delete);
-    ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_state_codegen);
-    self->framenum  = frame;
-    self->nextthink = think;
-    return self;
 }
 
-void ast_state_delete(ast_state *self)
+ast_state::~ast_state()
 {
-    if (self->framenum)
-        ast_unref(self->framenum);
-    if (self->nextthink)
-        ast_unref(self->nextthink);
-
-    ast_expression_delete((ast_expression*)self);
-    self->~ast_state();
-    mem_d(self);
+    if (m_framenum)
+        ast_unref(m_framenum);
+    if (m_nextthink)
+        ast_unref(m_nextthink);
 }
 
-ast_call* ast_call_new(lex_ctx_t ctx,
-                       ast_expression *funcexpr)
+ast_call *ast_call::make(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *funcexpr)
 {
-    ast_instantiate(ast_call, ctx, ast_call_delete);
-    if (!funcexpr->next) {
+    if (!funcexpr->m_next) {
         compile_error(ctx, "not a function");
-        mem_d(self);
         return nullptr;
     }
-    ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_call_codegen);
-
-    ast_side_effects(self) = true;
-
-    self->func     = funcexpr;
-    self->va_count = nullptr;
-
-    ast_type_adopt(self, funcexpr->next);
+    return new ast_call(ctx, funcexpr);
+}
 
-    return self;
+ast_call::ast_call(lex_ctx_t ctx, ast_expression *funcexpr)
+    : ast_expression(ctx, TYPE_ast_call)
+    , m_func(funcexpr)
+    , m_va_count(nullptr)
+{
+    m_side_effects = true;
+    adoptType(*funcexpr->m_next);
 }
 
-void ast_call_delete(ast_call *self)
+ast_call::~ast_call()
 {
-    for (auto &it : self->params)
+    for (auto &it : m_params)
         ast_unref(it);
 
-    if (self->func)
-        ast_unref(self->func);
+    if (m_func)
+        ast_unref(m_func);
 
-    if (self->va_count)
-        ast_unref(self->va_count);
-
-    ast_expression_delete((ast_expression*)self);
-    self->~ast_call();
-    mem_d(self);
+    if (m_va_count)
+        ast_unref(m_va_count);
 }
 
-static bool ast_call_check_vararg(ast_call *self, ast_expression *va_type, ast_expression *exp_type)
+bool ast_call::checkVararg(ast_expression *va_type, ast_expression *exp_type) const
 {
     char texp[1024];
     char tgot[1024];
     if (!exp_type)
         return true;
-    if (!va_type || !ast_compare_type(va_type, exp_type))
+    if (!va_type || !va_type->compareType(*exp_type))
     {
         if (va_type && exp_type)
         {
             ast_type_to_string(va_type,  tgot, sizeof(tgot));
             ast_type_to_string(exp_type, texp, sizeof(texp));
             if (OPTS_FLAG(UNSAFE_VARARGS)) {
-                if (compile_warning(ast_ctx(self), WARN_UNSAFE_TYPES,
+                if (compile_warning(m_context, WARN_UNSAFE_TYPES,
                                     "piped variadic argument differs in type: constrained to type %s, expected type %s",
                                     tgot, texp))
                     return false;
             } else {
-                compile_error(ast_ctx(self),
+                compile_error(m_context,
                               "piped variadic argument differs in type: constrained to type %s, expected type %s",
                               tgot, texp);
                 return false;
@@ -1036,12 +795,12 @@ static bool ast_call_check_vararg(ast_call *self, ast_expression *va_type, ast_e
         {
             ast_type_to_string(exp_type, texp, sizeof(texp));
             if (OPTS_FLAG(UNSAFE_VARARGS)) {
-                if (compile_warning(ast_ctx(self), WARN_UNSAFE_TYPES,
+                if (compile_warning(m_context, WARN_UNSAFE_TYPES,
                                     "piped variadic argument may differ in type: expected type %s",
                                     texp))
                     return false;
             } else {
-                compile_error(ast_ctx(self),
+                compile_error(m_context,
                               "piped variadic argument may differ in type: expected type %s",
                               texp);
                 return false;
@@ -1051,54 +810,54 @@ static bool ast_call_check_vararg(ast_call *self, ast_expression *va_type, ast_e
     return true;
 }
 
-bool ast_call_check_types(ast_call *self, ast_expression *va_type)
+bool ast_call::checkTypes(ast_expression *va_type) const
 {
     char texp[1024];
     char tgot[1024];
     size_t i;
     bool retval = true;
-    const ast_expression *func = self->func;
-    size_t count = self->params.size();
-    if (count > func->type_params.size())
-        count = func->type_params.size();
+
+    size_t count = m_params.size();
+    if (count > m_func->m_type_params.size())
+        count = m_func->m_type_params.size();
 
     for (i = 0; i < count; ++i) {
-        if (ast_istype(self->params[i], ast_argpipe)) {
+        if (ast_istype(m_params[i], ast_argpipe)) {
             /* warn about type safety instead */
             if (i+1 != count) {
-                compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "argpipe must be the last parameter to a function call");
+                compile_error(m_context, "argpipe must be the last parameter to a function call");
                 return false;
             }
-            if (!ast_call_check_vararg(self, va_type, (ast_expression*)func->type_params[i]))
+            if (!checkVararg(va_type, m_func->m_type_params[i].get()))
                 retval = false;
         }
-        else if (!ast_compare_type(self->params[i], (ast_expression*)(func->type_params[i])))
+        else if (!m_params[i]->compareType(*m_func->m_type_params[i]))
         {
-            ast_type_to_string(self->params[i], tgot, sizeof(tgot));
-            ast_type_to_string((ast_expression*)func->type_params[i], texp, sizeof(texp));
-            compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "invalid type for parameter %u in function call: expected %s, got %s",
+            ast_type_to_string(m_params[i], tgot, sizeof(tgot));
+            ast_type_to_string(m_func->m_type_params[i].get(), texp, sizeof(texp));
+            compile_error(m_context, "invalid type for parameter %u in function call: expected %s, got %s",
                      (unsigned int)(i+1), texp, tgot);
             /* we don't immediately return */
             retval = false;
         }
     }
-    count = self->params.size();
-    if (count > func->type_params.size() && func->varparam) {
+    count = m_params.size();
+    if (count > m_func->m_type_params.size() && m_func->m_varparam) {
         for (; i < count; ++i) {
-            if (ast_istype(self->params[i], ast_argpipe)) {
+            if (ast_istype(m_params[i], ast_argpipe)) {
                 /* warn about type safety instead */
                 if (i+1 != count) {
-                    compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "argpipe must be the last parameter to a function call");
+                    compile_error(m_context, "argpipe must be the last parameter to a function call");
                     return false;
                 }
-                if (!ast_call_check_vararg(self, va_type, func->varparam))
+                if (!checkVararg(va_type, m_func->m_varparam))
                     retval = false;
             }
-            else if (!ast_compare_type(self->params[i], func->varparam))
+            else if (!m_params[i]->compareType(*m_func->m_varparam))
             {
-                ast_type_to_string(self->params[i], tgot, sizeof(tgot));
-                ast_type_to_string(func->varparam, texp, sizeof(texp));
-                compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "invalid type for variadic parameter %u in function call: expected %s, got %s",
+                ast_type_to_string(m_params[i], tgot, sizeof(tgot));
+                ast_type_to_string(m_func->m_varparam, texp, sizeof(texp));
+                compile_error(m_context, "invalid type for variadic parameter %u in function call: expected %s, got %s",
                          (unsigned int)(i+1), texp, tgot);
                 /* we don't immediately return */
                 retval = false;
@@ -1108,146 +867,99 @@ bool ast_call_check_types(ast_call *self, ast_expression *va_type)
     return retval;
 }
 
-ast_store* ast_store_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, int op,
-                         ast_expression *dest, ast_expression *source)
+ast_block::ast_block(lex_ctx_t ctx)
+    : ast_expression(ctx, TYPE_ast_block)
 {
-    ast_instantiate(ast_store, ctx, ast_store_delete);
-    ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self, (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_store_codegen);
-
-    ast_side_effects(self) = true;
-
-    self->op = op;
-    self->dest = dest;
-    self->source = source;
-
-    ast_type_adopt(self, dest);
-
-    return self;
 }
 
-void ast_store_delete(ast_store *self)
+ast_block::~ast_block()
 {
-    ast_unref(self->dest);
-    ast_unref(self->source);
-    ast_expression_delete((ast_expression*)self);
-    self->~ast_store();
-    mem_d(self);
+    for (auto &it : m_exprs) ast_unref(it);
+    for (auto &it : m_locals) delete it;
+    for (auto &it : m_collect) delete it;
 }
 
-ast_block* ast_block_new(lex_ctx_t ctx)
+void ast_block::setType(const ast_expression &from)
 {
-    ast_instantiate(ast_block, ctx, ast_block_delete);
-    ast_expression_init((ast_expression*)self,
-                        (ast_expression_codegen*)&ast_block_codegen);
-    return self;
+    if (m_next)
+        delete m_next;
+    adoptType(from);
 }
 
-bool ast_block_add_expr(ast_block *self, ast_expression *e)
+
+bool ast_block::addExpr(ast_expression *e)
 {
-    ast_propagate_effects(self, e);
-    self->exprs.push_back(e);
-    if (self->next) {
-        ast_delete(self->next);
-        self->next = nullptr;
+    propagateSideEffects(e);
+    m_exprs.push_back(e);
+    if (m_next) {
+        delete m_next;
+        m_next = nullptr;
     }
-    ast_type_adopt(self, e);
+    adoptType(*e);
     return true;
 }
 
-void ast_block_collect(ast_block *self, ast_expression *expr)
+void ast_block::collect(ast_expression *expr)
 {
-    self->collect.push_back(expr);
-    expr->keep_node = true;
+    m_collect.push_back(expr);
+    expr->m_keep_node = true;
 }
 
-void ast_block_delete(ast_block *self)
+ast_function *ast_function::make(lex_ctx_t ctx, const std::string &name, ast_value *vtype)
 {
-    for (auto &it : self->exprs) ast_unref(it);
-    for (auto &it : self->locals) ast_delete(it);
-    for (auto &it : self->collect) ast_delete(it);
-    ast_expression_delete((ast_expression*)self);
-    self->~ast_block();
-    mem_d(self);
+    if (!vtype) {
+        compile_error(ctx, "internal error: ast_function_new condition 0");
+        return nullptr;
+    } else if (vtype->m_hasvalue || vtype->m_vtype != TYPE_FUNCTION) {
+        compile_error(ctx, "internal error: ast_function_new condition %i %i type=%i (probably 2 bodies?)",
+                 (int)!vtype,
+                 (int)vtype->m_hasvalue,
+                 vtype->m_vtype);
+        return nullptr;
+    }
+    return new ast_function(ctx, name, vtype);
 }
 
-void ast_block_set_type(ast_block *self, ast_expression *from)
+ast_function::ast_function(lex_ctx_t ctx, const std::string &name, ast_value *vtype)
+    : ast_node(ctx, TYPE_ast_function)
+    , m_function_type(vtype)
+    , m_name(name)
+    , m_builtin(0)
+    , m_static_count(0)
+    , m_ir_func(nullptr)
+    , m_curblock(nullptr)
+    , m_labelcount(0)
+    , m_varargs(nullptr)
+    , m_argc(nullptr)
+    , m_fixedparams(nullptr)
+    , m_return_value(nullptr)
 {
-    if (self->next)
-        ast_delete(self->next);
-    ast_type_adopt(self, from);
+    vtype->m_hasvalue = true;
+    vtype->m_constval.vfunc = this;
 }
 
-ast_function* ast_function_new(lex_ctx_t ctx, const char *name, ast_value *vtype)
+ast_function::~ast_function()
 {
-    ast_instantiate(ast_function, ctx, ast_function_delete);
-
-    if (!vtype) {
-        compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: ast_function_new condition 0");
-        goto cleanup;
-    } else if (vtype->hasvalue || vtype->vtype != TYPE_FUNCTION) {
-        compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: ast_function_new condition %i %i type=%i (probably 2 bodies?)",
-                 (int)!vtype,
-                 (int)vtype->hasvalue,
-                 vtype->vtype);
-        goto cleanup;
+    if (m_function_type) {
+        // ast_value_delete(m_function_type);
+        m_function_type->m_hasvalue = false;
+        m_function_type->m_constval.vfunc = nullptr;
+        // We use unref - if it was stored in a global table it is supposed
+        // to be deleted from *there*
+        ast_unref(m_function_type);
     }
 
-    self->function_type = vtype;
-    self->name          = name ? util_strdup(name) : nullptr;
-
-    self->labelcount = 0;
-    self->builtin = 0;
-
-    self->ir_func = nullptr;
-    self->curblock = nullptr;
-
-    vtype->hasvalue = true;
-    vtype->constval.vfunc = self;
-
-    self->varargs          = nullptr;
-    self->argc             = nullptr;
-    self->fixedparams      = nullptr;
-    self->return_value     = nullptr;
-    self->static_count     = 0;
+    if (m_fixedparams)
+        ast_unref(m_fixedparams);
+    if (m_return_value)
+        ast_unref(m_return_value);
 
-    return self;
-
-cleanup:
-    mem_d(self);
-    return nullptr;
+    // force this to be cleared before m_varargs/m_argc as blocks might
+    // try to access them via ast_unref()
+    m_blocks.clear();
 }
 
-void ast_function_delete(ast_function *self)
-{
-    if (self->name)
-        mem_d((void*)self->name);
-    if (self->function_type) {
-        /* ast_value_delete(self->function_type); */
-        self->function_type->hasvalue = false;
-        self->function_type->constval.vfunc = nullptr;
-        /* We use unref - if it was stored in a global table it is supposed
-         * to be deleted from *there*
-         */
-        ast_unref(self->function_type);
-    }
-    for (auto &it : self->static_names)
-        mem_d(it);
-    // FIXME::DELME:: unique_ptr used on ast_block
-    //for (auto &it : self->blocks)
-    //    ast_delete(it);
-    if (self->varargs)
-        ast_delete(self->varargs);
-    if (self->argc)
-        ast_delete(self->argc);
-    if (self->fixedparams)
-        ast_unref(self->fixedparams);
-    if (self->return_value)
-        ast_unref(self->return_value);
-    self->~ast_function();
-    mem_d(self);
-}
-
-const char* ast_function_label(ast_function *self, const char *prefix)
+const char* ast_function::makeLabel(const char *prefix)
 {
     size_t id;
     size_t len;
@@ -1260,10 +972,10 @@ const char* ast_function_label(ast_function *self, const char *prefix)
         return nullptr;
     }
 
-    id  = (self->labelcount++);
+    id  = (m_labelcount++);
     len = strlen(prefix);
 
-    from = self->labelbuf + sizeof(self->labelbuf)-1;
+    from = m_labelbuf + sizeof(m_labelbuf)-1;
     *from-- = 0;
     do {
         *from-- = (id%10) + '0';
@@ -1281,357 +993,358 @@ const char* ast_function_label(ast_function *self, const char *prefix)
  * But I can't imagine a pituation where the output is truly unnecessary.
  */
 
-static void _ast_codegen_output_type(ast_expression *self, ir_value *out)
+static void codegen_output_type(ast_expression *self, ir_value *out)
 {
-    if (out->vtype == TYPE_FIELD)
-        out->fieldtype = self->next->vtype;
-    if (out->vtype == TYPE_FUNCTION)
-        out->outtype = self->next->vtype;
+    if (out->m_vtype == TYPE_FIELD)
+        out->m_fieldtype = self->m_next->m_vtype;
+    if (out->m_vtype == TYPE_FUNCTION)
+        out->m_outtype = self->m_next->m_vtype;
 }
 
-#define codegen_output_type(a,o) (_ast_codegen_output_type(static_cast<ast_expression*>((a)),(o)))
-
-bool ast_value_codegen(ast_value *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
+bool ast_value::codegen(ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
 {
     (void)func;
     (void)lvalue;
-    if (self->vtype == TYPE_NIL) {
-        *out = func->ir_func->owner->nil;
+    if (m_vtype == TYPE_NIL) {
+        *out = func->m_ir_func->m_owner->m_nil;
         return true;
     }
-    /* NOTE: This is the codegen for a variable used in an 
-     * It is not the codegen to generate the value. For this purpose,
-     * ast_local_codegen and ast_global_codegen are to be used before this
-     * is executed. ast_function_codegen should take care of its locals,
-     * and the ast-user should take care of ast_global_codegen to be used
-     * on all the globals.
-     */
-    if (!self->ir_v) {
+    // NOTE: This is the codegen for a variable used in an expression.
+    // It is not the codegen to generate the value storage. For this purpose,
+    // generateLocal and generateGlobal are to be used before this
+    // is executed. ast_function::generateFunction should take care of its
+    // locals, and the ast-user should take care of generateGlobal to be used
+    // on all the globals.
+    if (!m_ir_v) {
         char tname[1024]; /* typename is reserved in C++ */
-        ast_type_to_string((ast_expression*)self, tname, sizeof(tname));
-        compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "ast_value used before generated %s %s", tname, self->name);
+        ast_type_to_string(this, tname, sizeof(tname));
+        compile_error(m_context, "ast_value used before generated %s %s", tname, m_name);
         return false;
     }
-    *out = self->ir_v;
+    *out = m_ir_v;
     return true;
 }
 
-static bool ast_global_array_set(ast_value *self)
+bool ast_value::setGlobalArray()
 {
-    size_t count = self->initlist.size();
+    size_t count = m_initlist.size();
     size_t i;
 
-    if (count > self->count) {
-        compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "too many elements in initializer");
-        count = self->count;
+    if (count > m_count) {
+        compile_error(m_context, "too many elements in initializer");
+        count = m_count;
     }
-    else if (count < self->count) {
+    else if (count < m_count) {
         /* add this?
-        compile_warning(ast_ctx(self), "not all elements are initialized");
+        compile_warning(m_context, "not all elements are initialized");
         */
     }
 
     for (i = 0; i != count; ++i) {
-        switch (self->next->vtype) {
+        switch (m_next->m_vtype) {
             case TYPE_FLOAT:
-                if (!ir_value_set_float(self->ir_values[i], self->initlist[i].vfloat))
+                if (!m_ir_values[i]->setFloat(m_initlist[i].vfloat))
                     return false;
                 break;
             case TYPE_VECTOR:
-                if (!ir_value_set_vector(self->ir_values[i], self->initlist[i].vvec))
+                if (!m_ir_values[i]->setVector(m_initlist[i].vvec))
                     return false;
                 break;
             case TYPE_STRING:
-                if (!ir_value_set_string(self->ir_values[i], self->initlist[i].vstring))
+                if (!m_ir_values[i]->setString(m_initlist[i].vstring))
                     return false;
                 break;
             case TYPE_ARRAY:
                 /* we don't support them in any other place yet either */
-                compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "TODO: nested arrays");
+                compile_error(m_context, "TODO: nested arrays");
                 return false;
             case TYPE_FUNCTION:
                 /* this requiers a bit more work - similar to the fields I suppose */
-                compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "global of type function not properly generated");
+                compile_error(m_context, "global of type function not properly generated");
                 return false;
             case TYPE_FIELD:
-                if (!self->initlist[i].vfield) {
-                    compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "field constant without vfield set");
+                if (!m_initlist[i].vfield) {
+                    compile_error(m_context, "field constant without vfield set");
                     return false;
                 }
-                if (!self->initlist[i].vfield->ir_v) {
-                    compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "field constant generated before its field");
+                if (!m_initlist[i].vfield->m_ir_v) {
+                    compile_error(m_context, "field constant generated before its field");
                     return false;
                 }
-                if (!ir_value_set_field(self->ir_values[i], self->initlist[i].vfield->ir_v))
+                if (!m_ir_values[i]->setField(m_initlist[i].vfield->m_ir_v))
                     return false;
                 break;
             default:
-                compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "TODO: global constant type %i", self->vtype);
+                compile_error(m_context, "TODO: global constant type %i", m_vtype);
                 break;
         }
     }
     return true;
 }
 
-static bool check_array(ast_value *self, ast_value *array)
+bool ast_value::checkArray(const ast_value &array) const
 {
-    if (array->flags & AST_FLAG_ARRAY_INIT && array->initlist.empty()) {
-        compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "array without size: %s", self->name);
+    if (array.m_flags & AST_FLAG_ARRAY_INIT && array.m_initlist.empty()) {
+        compile_error(m_context, "array without size: %s", m_name);
         return false;
     }
-    /* we are lame now - considering the way QC works we won't tolerate arrays > 1024 elements */
-    if (!array->count || array->count > OPTS_OPTION_U32(OPTION_MAX_ARRAY_SIZE)) {
-        compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "Invalid array of size %lu", (unsigned long)array->count);
+    // we are lame now - considering the way QC works we won't tolerate arrays > 1024 elements
+    if (!array.m_count || array.m_count > OPTS_OPTION_U32(OPTION_MAX_ARRAY_SIZE)) {
+        compile_error(m_context, "Invalid array of size %lu", (unsigned long)array.m_count);
         return false;
     }
     return true;
 }
 
-bool ast_global_codegen(ast_value *self, ir_builder *ir, bool isfield)
+bool ast_value::generateGlobal(ir_builder *ir, bool isfield)
 {
-    ir_value *v = nullptr;
-
-    if (self->vtype == TYPE_NIL) {
-        compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: trying to generate a variable of TYPE_NIL");
+    if (m_vtype == TYPE_NIL) {
+        compile_error(m_context, "internal error: trying to generate a variable of TYPE_NIL");
         return false;
     }
 
-    if (self->hasvalue && self->vtype == TYPE_FUNCTION)
-    {
-        ir_function *func = ir_builder_create_function(ir, self->name, self->next->vtype);
-        if (!func)
-            return false;
-        func->context = ast_ctx(self);
-        func->value->context = ast_ctx(self);
-
-        self->constval.vfunc->ir_func = func;
-        self->ir_v = func->value;
-        if (self->flags & AST_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF)
-            self->ir_v->flags |= IR_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF;
-        if (self->flags & AST_FLAG_ERASEABLE)
-            self->ir_v->flags |= IR_FLAG_ERASABLE;
-        if (self->flags & AST_FLAG_BLOCK_COVERAGE)
-            func->flags |= IR_FLAG_BLOCK_COVERAGE;
-        /* The function is filled later on ast_function_codegen... */
-        return true;
-    }
-
-    if (isfield && self->vtype == TYPE_FIELD) {
-        ast_expression *fieldtype = self->next;
-
-        if (self->hasvalue) {
-            compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "TODO: constant field pointers with value");
-            goto error;
-        }
-
-        if (fieldtype->vtype == TYPE_ARRAY) {
-            size_t ai;
-            char   *name;
-            size_t  namelen;
-
-            ast_expression *elemtype;
-            qc_type         vtype;
-            ast_value      *array = (ast_value*)fieldtype;
-
-            if (!ast_istype(fieldtype, ast_value)) {
-                compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: ast_value required");
-                return false;
-            }
-
-            if (!check_array(self, array))
-                return false;
-
-            elemtype = array->next;
-            vtype = elemtype->vtype;
-
-            v = ir_builder_create_field(ir, self->name, vtype);
-            if (!v) {
-                compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "ir_builder_create_global failed on `%s`", self->name);
-                return false;
-            }
-            v->context = ast_ctx(self);
-            v->unique_life = true;
-            v->locked      = true;
-            array->ir_v = self->ir_v = v;
-
-            if (self->flags & AST_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF)
-                self->ir_v->flags |= IR_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF;
-            if (self->flags & AST_FLAG_ERASEABLE)
-                self->ir_v->flags |= IR_FLAG_ERASABLE;
-
-            namelen = strlen(self->name);
-            name    = (char*)mem_a(namelen + 16);
-            util_strncpy(name, self->name, namelen);
-
-            array->ir_values = (ir_value**)mem_a(sizeof(array->ir_values[0]) * array->count);
-            array->ir_values[0] = v;
-            for (ai = 1; ai < array->count; ++ai) {
-                util_snprintf(name + namelen, 16, "[%u]", (unsigned int)ai);
-                array->ir_values[ai] = ir_builder_create_field(ir, name, vtype);
-                if (!array->ir_values[ai]) {
-                    mem_d(name);
-                    compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "ir_builder_create_global failed on `%s`", name);
-                    return false;
-                }
-                array->ir_values[ai]->context = ast_ctx(self);
-                array->ir_values[ai]->unique_life = true;
-                array->ir_values[ai]->locked      = true;
-                if (self->flags & AST_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF)
-                    self->ir_values[ai]->flags |= IR_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF;
-            }
-            mem_d(name);
-        }
-        else
-        {
-            v = ir_builder_create_field(ir, self->name, self->next->vtype);
-            if (!v)
-                return false;
-            v->context = ast_ctx(self);
-            self->ir_v = v;
-            if (self->flags & AST_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF)
-                self->ir_v->flags |= IR_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF;
-
-            if (self->flags & AST_FLAG_ERASEABLE)
-                self->ir_v->flags |= IR_FLAG_ERASABLE;
-        }
-        return true;
-    }
-
-    if (self->vtype == TYPE_ARRAY) {
-        size_t ai;
-        char   *name;
-        size_t  namelen;
-
-        ast_expression *elemtype = self->next;
-        qc_type vtype = elemtype->vtype;
-
-        if (self->flags & AST_FLAG_ARRAY_INIT && !self->count) {
-            compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "array `%s' has no size", self->name);
-            return false;
-        }
+    if (m_hasvalue && m_vtype == TYPE_FUNCTION)
+        return generateGlobalFunction(ir);
 
-        /* same as with field arrays */
-        if (!check_array(self, self))
-            return false;
+    if (isfield && m_vtype == TYPE_FIELD)
+        return generateGlobalField(ir);
 
-        v = ir_builder_create_global(ir, self->name, vtype);
-        if (!v) {
-            compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "ir_builder_create_global failed `%s`", self->name);
+    ir_value *v = nullptr;
+    if (m_vtype == TYPE_ARRAY) {
+        v = prepareGlobalArray(ir);
+        if (!v)
             return false;
-        }
-        v->context = ast_ctx(self);
-        v->unique_life = true;
-        v->locked      = true;
-
-        if (self->flags & AST_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF)
-            v->flags |= IR_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF;
-        if (self->flags & AST_FLAG_ERASEABLE)
-            self->ir_v->flags |= IR_FLAG_ERASABLE;
-
-        namelen = strlen(self->name);
-        name    = (char*)mem_a(namelen + 16);
-        util_strncpy(name, self->name, namelen);
-
-        self->ir_values = (ir_value**)mem_a(sizeof(self->ir_values[0]) * self->count);
-        self->ir_values[0] = v;
-        for (ai = 1; ai < self->count; ++ai) {
-            util_snprintf(name + namelen, 16, "[%u]", (unsigned int)ai);
-            self->ir_values[ai] = ir_builder_create_global(ir, name, vtype);
-            if (!self->ir_values[ai]) {
-                mem_d(name);
-                compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "ir_builder_create_global failed `%s`", name);
-                return false;
-            }
-            self->ir_values[ai]->context = ast_ctx(self);
-            self->ir_values[ai]->unique_life = true;
-            self->ir_values[ai]->locked      = true;
-            if (self->flags & AST_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF)
-                self->ir_values[ai]->flags |= IR_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF;
-        }
-        mem_d(name);
-    }
-    else
-    {
-        /* Arrays don't do this since there's no "array" value which spans across the
-         * whole thing.
-         */
-        v = ir_builder_create_global(ir, self->name, self->vtype);
+    } else {
+        // Arrays don't do this since there's no "array" value which spans across the
+        // whole thing.
+        v = ir->createGlobal(m_name, m_vtype);
         if (!v) {
-            compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "ir_builder_create_global failed on `%s`", self->name);
+            compile_error(m_context, "ir_builder::createGlobal failed on `%s`", m_name);
             return false;
         }
-        codegen_output_type(self, v);
-        v->context = ast_ctx(self);
+        codegen_output_type(this, v);
+        v->m_context = m_context;
     }
 
     /* link us to the ir_value */
-    v->cvq = self->cvq;
-    self->ir_v = v;
+    v->m_cvq = m_cvq;
+    m_ir_v = v;
 
-    if (self->flags & AST_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF)
-        self->ir_v->flags |= IR_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF;
-    if (self->flags & AST_FLAG_ERASEABLE)
-        self->ir_v->flags |= IR_FLAG_ERASABLE;
+    if (m_flags & AST_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF)
+        m_ir_v->m_flags |= IR_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF;
+    if (m_flags & AST_FLAG_ERASEABLE && !(m_flags & AST_FLAG_NOERASE))
+        m_ir_v->m_flags |= IR_FLAG_ERASABLE;
+    if (m_flags & AST_FLAG_NOREF)
+        m_ir_v->m_flags |= IR_FLAG_NOREF;
 
     /* initialize */
-    if (self->hasvalue) {
-        switch (self->vtype)
+    if (m_hasvalue) {
+        switch (m_vtype)
         {
             case TYPE_FLOAT:
-                if (!ir_value_set_float(v, self->constval.vfloat))
-                    goto error;
+                if (!v->setFloat(m_constval.vfloat))
+                    return false;
                 break;
             case TYPE_VECTOR:
-                if (!ir_value_set_vector(v, self->constval.vvec))
-                    goto error;
+                if (!v->setVector(m_constval.vvec))
+                    return false;
                 break;
             case TYPE_STRING:
-                if (!ir_value_set_string(v, self->constval.vstring))
-                    goto error;
+                if (!v->setString(m_constval.vstring))
+                    return false;
                 break;
             case TYPE_ARRAY:
-                ast_global_array_set(self);
+                if (!setGlobalArray())
+                    return false;
                 break;
             case TYPE_FUNCTION:
-                compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "global of type function not properly generated");
-                goto error;
+                compile_error(m_context, "global of type function not properly generated");
+                return false;
                 /* Cannot generate an IR value for a function,
                  * need a pointer pointing to a function rather.
                  */
             case TYPE_FIELD:
-                if (!self->constval.vfield) {
-                    compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "field constant without vfield set");
-                    goto error;
+                if (!m_constval.vfield) {
+                    compile_error(m_context, "field constant without vfield set");
+                    return false;
                 }
-                if (!self->constval.vfield->ir_v) {
-                    compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "field constant generated before its field");
-                    goto error;
+                if (!m_constval.vfield->m_ir_v) {
+                    compile_error(m_context, "field constant generated before its field");
+                    return false;
                 }
-                if (!ir_value_set_field(v, self->constval.vfield->ir_v))
-                    goto error;
+                if (!v->setField(m_constval.vfield->m_ir_v))
+                    return false;
                 break;
             default:
-                compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "TODO: global constant type %i", self->vtype);
+                compile_error(m_context, "TODO: global constant type %i", m_vtype);
                 break;
         }
     }
+
     return true;
+}
 
-error: /* clean up */
-    if (v) delete v;
-    return false;
+bool ast_value::generateGlobalFunction(ir_builder *ir)
+{
+    ir_function *func = ir->createFunction(m_name, m_next->m_vtype);
+    if (!func)
+        return false;
+    func->m_context = m_context;
+    func->m_value->m_context = m_context;
+
+    m_constval.vfunc->m_ir_func = func;
+    m_ir_v = func->m_value;
+    if (m_flags & AST_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF)
+        m_ir_v->m_flags |= IR_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF;
+    if (m_flags & AST_FLAG_ERASEABLE && !(m_flags & AST_FLAG_NOERASE))
+        m_ir_v->m_flags |= IR_FLAG_ERASABLE;
+    if (m_flags & AST_FLAG_BLOCK_COVERAGE)
+        func->m_flags |= IR_FLAG_BLOCK_COVERAGE;
+    // The function is filled later on ast_function::generateFunction...
+    return true;
 }
 
-static bool ast_local_codegen(ast_value *self, ir_function *func, bool param)
+bool ast_value::generateGlobalField(ir_builder *ir)
 {
-    ir_value *v = nullptr;
+    ast_expression *fieldtype = m_next;
+
+    if (m_hasvalue) {
+        compile_error(m_context, "TODO: constant field pointers with value");
+        return false;
+    }
+
+    if (fieldtype->m_vtype == TYPE_ARRAY) {
+        if (!ast_istype(fieldtype, ast_value)) {
+            compile_error(m_context, "internal error: ast_value required");
+            return false;
+        }
+        ast_value      *array = reinterpret_cast<ast_value*>(fieldtype);
+
+        if (!checkArray(*array))
+            return false;
+
+        ast_expression *elemtype = array->m_next;
+        qc_type vtype = elemtype->m_vtype;
+
+        ir_value *v = ir->createField(m_name, vtype);
+        if (!v) {
+            compile_error(m_context, "ir_builder::createGlobal failed on `%s`", m_name);
+            return false;
+        }
+        v->m_context = m_context;
+        v->m_unique_life = true;
+        v->m_locked      = true;
+        array->m_ir_v = m_ir_v = v;
+
+        if (m_flags & AST_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF)
+            m_ir_v->m_flags |= IR_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF;
+        if (m_flags & AST_FLAG_ERASEABLE && !(m_flags & AST_FLAG_NOERASE))
+            m_ir_v->m_flags |= IR_FLAG_ERASABLE;
+        if (m_flags & AST_FLAG_NOREF)
+            m_ir_v->m_flags |= IR_FLAG_NOREF;
+
+        const size_t namelen = m_name.length();
+        std::unique_ptr<char[]> name(new char[namelen+16]);
+        util_strncpy(name.get(), m_name.c_str(), namelen);
+
+        array->m_ir_values.resize(array->m_count);
+        array->m_ir_values[0] = v;
+        for (size_t ai = 1; ai < array->m_count; ++ai) {
+            util_snprintf(name.get() + namelen, 16, "[%u]", (unsigned int)ai);
+            array->m_ir_values[ai] = ir->createField(name.get(), vtype);
+            if (!array->m_ir_values[ai]) {
+                compile_error(m_context, "ir_builder::createGlobal failed on `%s`", name.get());
+                return false;
+            }
+            array->m_ir_values[ai]->m_context = m_context;
+            array->m_ir_values[ai]->m_unique_life = true;
+            array->m_ir_values[ai]->m_locked      = true;
+            if (m_flags & AST_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF)
+                array->m_ir_values[ai]->m_flags |= IR_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF;
+            if (m_flags & AST_FLAG_NOREF)
+                array->m_ir_values[ai]->m_flags |= IR_FLAG_NOREF;
+        }
+    }
+    else
+    {
+        ir_value *v = ir->createField(m_name, m_next->m_vtype);
+        if (!v)
+            return false;
+        v->m_context = m_context;
+        m_ir_v = v;
+        if (m_flags & AST_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF)
+            m_ir_v->m_flags |= IR_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF;
+        if (m_flags & AST_FLAG_ERASEABLE && !(m_flags & AST_FLAG_NOERASE))
+            m_ir_v->m_flags |= IR_FLAG_ERASABLE;
+        if (m_flags & AST_FLAG_NOREF)
+            m_ir_v->m_flags |= IR_FLAG_NOREF;
+    }
+    return true;
+}
+
+ir_value *ast_value::prepareGlobalArray(ir_builder *ir)
+{
+    ast_expression *elemtype = m_next;
+    qc_type vtype = elemtype->m_vtype;
+
+    if (m_flags & AST_FLAG_ARRAY_INIT && !m_count) {
+        compile_error(m_context, "array `%s' has no size", m_name);
+        return nullptr;
+    }
+
+    /* same as with field arrays */
+    if (!checkArray(*this))
+        return nullptr;
+
+    ir_value *v = ir->createGlobal(m_name, vtype);
+    if (!v) {
+        compile_error(m_context, "ir_builder::createGlobal failed `%s`", m_name);
+        return nullptr;
+    }
+    v->m_context = m_context;
+    v->m_unique_life = true;
+    v->m_locked      = true;
+
+    if (m_flags & AST_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF)
+        v->m_flags |= IR_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF;
+    if (m_flags & AST_FLAG_ERASEABLE && !(m_flags & AST_FLAG_NOERASE))
+        v->m_flags |= IR_FLAG_ERASABLE;
+    if (m_flags & AST_FLAG_NOREF)
+        v->m_flags |= IR_FLAG_NOREF;
+
+    const size_t namelen = m_name.length();
+    std::unique_ptr<char[]> name(new char[namelen+16]);
+    util_strncpy(name.get(), m_name.c_str(), namelen);
+
+    m_ir_values.resize(m_count);
+    m_ir_values[0] = v;
+    for (size_t ai = 1; ai < m_count; ++ai) {
+        util_snprintf(name.get() + namelen, 16, "[%u]", (unsigned int)ai);
+        m_ir_values[ai] = ir->createGlobal(name.get(), vtype);
+        if (!m_ir_values[ai]) {
+            compile_error(m_context, "ir_builder::createGlobal failed `%s`", name.get());
+            return nullptr;
+        }
+        m_ir_values[ai]->m_context = m_context;
+        m_ir_values[ai]->m_unique_life = true;
+        m_ir_values[ai]->m_locked      = true;
+        if (m_flags & AST_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF)
+            m_ir_values[ai]->m_flags |= IR_FLAG_INCLUDE_DEF;
+        if (m_flags & AST_FLAG_NOREF)
+            m_ir_values[ai]->m_flags |= IR_FLAG_NOREF;
+    }
+
+    return v;
+}
 
-    if (self->vtype == TYPE_NIL) {
-        compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: trying to generate a variable of TYPE_NIL");
+bool ast_value::generateLocal(ir_function *func, bool param)
+{
+    if (m_vtype == TYPE_NIL) {
+        compile_error(m_context, "internal error: trying to generate a variable of TYPE_NIL");
         return false;
     }
 
-    if (self->hasvalue && self->vtype == TYPE_FUNCTION)
+    if (m_hasvalue && m_vtype == TYPE_FUNCTION)
     {
         /* Do we allow local functions? I think not...
          * this is NOT a function pointer atm.
@@ -1639,96 +1352,95 @@ static bool ast_local_codegen(ast_value *self, ir_function *func, bool param)
         return false;
     }
 
-    if (self->vtype == TYPE_ARRAY) {
-        size_t ai;
-        char   *name;
-        size_t  namelen;
-
-        ast_expression *elemtype = self->next;
-        qc_type vtype = elemtype->vtype;
+    ir_value *v = nullptr;
+    if (m_vtype == TYPE_ARRAY) {
+        ast_expression *elemtype = m_next;
+        qc_type vtype = elemtype->m_vtype;
 
-        func->flags |= IR_FLAG_HAS_ARRAYS;
+        func->m_flags |= IR_FLAG_HAS_ARRAYS;
 
-        if (param && !(self->flags & AST_FLAG_IS_VARARG)) {
-            compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "array-parameters are not supported");
+        if (param && !(m_flags & AST_FLAG_IS_VARARG)) {
+            compile_error(m_context, "array-parameters are not supported");
             return false;
         }
 
         /* we are lame now - considering the way QC works we won't tolerate arrays > 1024 elements */
-        if (!check_array(self, self))
+        if (!checkArray(*this))
             return false;
 
-        self->ir_values = (ir_value**)mem_a(sizeof(self->ir_values[0]) * self->count);
-        if (!self->ir_values) {
-            compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "failed to allocate array values");
-            return false;
-        }
-
-        v = ir_function_create_local(func, self->name, vtype, param);
+        m_ir_values.resize(m_count);
+        v = ir_function_create_local(func, m_name, vtype, param);
         if (!v) {
-            compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: ir_function_create_local failed");
+            compile_error(m_context, "internal error: ir_function_create_local failed");
             return false;
         }
-        v->context = ast_ctx(self);
-        v->unique_life = true;
-        v->locked      = true;
-
-        namelen = strlen(self->name);
-        name    = (char*)mem_a(namelen + 16);
-        util_strncpy(name, self->name, namelen);
-
-        self->ir_values[0] = v;
-        for (ai = 1; ai < self->count; ++ai) {
-            util_snprintf(name + namelen, 16, "[%u]", (unsigned int)ai);
-            self->ir_values[ai] = ir_function_create_local(func, name, vtype, param);
-            if (!self->ir_values[ai]) {
-                compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal_error: ir_builder_create_global failed on `%s`", name);
+        v->m_context = m_context;
+        v->m_unique_life = true;
+        v->m_locked      = true;
+
+        if (m_flags & AST_FLAG_NOREF)
+            v->m_flags |= IR_FLAG_NOREF;
+
+        const size_t namelen = m_name.length();
+        std::unique_ptr<char[]> name(new char[namelen+16]);
+        util_strncpy(name.get(), m_name.c_str(), namelen);
+
+        m_ir_values[0] = v;
+        for (size_t ai = 1; ai < m_count; ++ai) {
+            util_snprintf(name.get() + namelen, 16, "[%u]", (unsigned int)ai);
+            m_ir_values[ai] = ir_function_create_local(func, name.get(), vtype, param);
+            if (!m_ir_values[ai]) {
+                compile_error(m_context, "internal_error: ir_builder::createGlobal failed on `%s`", name.get());
                 return false;
             }
-            self->ir_values[ai]->context = ast_ctx(self);
-            self->ir_values[ai]->unique_life = true;
-            self->ir_values[ai]->locked      = true;
+            m_ir_values[ai]->m_context = m_context;
+            m_ir_values[ai]->m_unique_life = true;
+            m_ir_values[ai]->m_locked = true;
+
+            if (m_flags & AST_FLAG_NOREF)
+                m_ir_values[ai]->m_flags |= IR_FLAG_NOREF;
         }
-        mem_d(name);
     }
     else
     {
-        v = ir_function_create_local(func, self->name, self->vtype, param);
+        v = ir_function_create_local(func, m_name, m_vtype, param);
         if (!v)
             return false;
-        codegen_output_type(self, v);
-        v->context = ast_ctx(self);
+        codegen_output_type(this, v);
+        v->m_context = m_context;
     }
 
-    /* A constant local... hmmm...
-     * I suppose the IR will have to deal with this
-     */
-    if (self->hasvalue) {
-        switch (self->vtype)
+    // A constant local... hmmm...
+    // I suppose the IR will have to deal with this
+    if (m_hasvalue) {
+        switch (m_vtype)
         {
             case TYPE_FLOAT:
-                if (!ir_value_set_float(v, self->constval.vfloat))
+                if (!v->setFloat(m_constval.vfloat))
                     goto error;
                 break;
             case TYPE_VECTOR:
-                if (!ir_value_set_vector(v, self->constval.vvec))
+                if (!v->setVector(m_constval.vvec))
                     goto error;
                 break;
             case TYPE_STRING:
-                if (!ir_value_set_string(v, self->constval.vstring))
+                if (!v->setString(m_constval.vstring))
                     goto error;
                 break;
             default:
-                compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "TODO: global constant type %i", self->vtype);
+                compile_error(m_context, "TODO: global constant type %i", m_vtype);
                 break;
         }
     }
 
-    /* link us to the ir_value */
-    v->cvq = self->cvq;
-    self->ir_v = v;
+    // link us to the ir_value
+    v->m_cvq = m_cvq;
+    m_ir_v = v;
 
-    if (!ast_generate_accessors(self, func->owner))
+    if (m_flags & AST_FLAG_NOREF)
+        m_ir_v->m_flags |= IR_FLAG_NOREF;
+
+    if (!generateAccessors(func->m_owner))
         return false;
     return true;
 
@@ -1737,173 +1449,165 @@ error: /* clean up */
     return false;
 }
 
-bool ast_generate_accessors(ast_value *self, ir_builder *ir)
+bool ast_value::generateAccessors(ir_builder *ir)
 {
     size_t i;
     bool warn = OPTS_WARN(WARN_USED_UNINITIALIZED);
-    if (!self->setter || !self->getter)
+    if (!m_setter || !m_getter)
         return true;
-    for (i = 0; i < self->count; ++i) {
-        if (!self->ir_values) {
-            compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: no array values generated for `%s`", self->name);
-            return false;
-        }
-        if (!self->ir_values[i]) {
-            compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: not all array values have been generated for `%s`", self->name);
+    if (m_count && m_ir_values.empty()) {
+        compile_error(m_context, "internal error: no array values generated for `%s`", m_name);
+        return false;
+    }
+    for (i = 0; i < m_count; ++i) {
+        if (!m_ir_values[i]) {
+            compile_error(m_context, "internal error: not all array values have been generated for `%s`", m_name);
             return false;
         }
-        if (!self->ir_values[i]->life.empty()) {
-            compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: function containing `%s` already generated", self->name);
+        if (!m_ir_values[i]->m_life.empty()) {
+            compile_error(m_context, "internal error: function containing `%s` already generated", m_name);
             return false;
         }
     }
 
     opts_set(opts.warn, WARN_USED_UNINITIALIZED, false);
-    if (self->setter) {
-        if (!ast_global_codegen  (self->setter, ir, false) ||
-            !ast_function_codegen(self->setter->constval.vfunc, ir) ||
-            !ir_function_finalize(self->setter->constval.vfunc->ir_func))
+    if (m_setter) {
+        if (!m_setter->generateGlobal(ir, false) ||
+            !m_setter->m_constval.vfunc->generateFunction(ir) ||
+            !ir_function_finalize(m_setter->m_constval.vfunc->m_ir_func))
         {
-            compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: failed to generate setter for `%s`", self->name);
+            compile_error(m_context, "internal error: failed to generate setter for `%s`", m_name);
             opts_set(opts.warn, WARN_USED_UNINITIALIZED, warn);
             return false;
         }
     }
-    if (self->getter) {
-        if (!ast_global_codegen  (self->getter, ir, false) ||
-            !ast_function_codegen(self->getter->constval.vfunc, ir) ||
-            !ir_function_finalize(self->getter->constval.vfunc->ir_func))
+    if (m_getter) {
+        if (!m_getter->generateGlobal(ir, false) ||
+            !m_getter->m_constval.vfunc->generateFunction(ir) ||
+            !ir_function_finalize(m_getter->m_constval.vfunc->m_ir_func))
         {
-            compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: failed to generate getter for `%s`", self->name);
+            compile_error(m_context, "internal error: failed to generate getter for `%s`", m_name);
             opts_set(opts.warn, WARN_USED_UNINITIALIZED, warn);
             return false;
         }
     }
-    for (i = 0; i < self->count; ++i)
-        self->ir_values[i]->life.clear();
+    for (i = 0; i < m_count; ++i)
+        m_ir_values[i]->m_life.clear();
     opts_set(opts.warn, WARN_USED_UNINITIALIZED, warn);
     return true;
 }
 
-bool ast_function_codegen(ast_function *self, ir_builder *ir)
+bool ast_function::generateFunction(ir_builder *ir)
 {
-    ir_function *irf;
-    ir_value    *dummy;
-    ast_expression         *ec;
-    ast_expression_codegen *cgen;
-
     (void)ir;
 
-    irf = self->ir_func;
+    ir_value *dummy;
+
+    ir_function *irf = m_ir_func;
     if (!irf) {
-        compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: ast_function's related ast_value was not generated yet");
+        compile_error(m_context, "internal error: ast_function's related ast_value was not generated yet");
         return false;
     }
 
     /* fill the parameter list */
-    ec = self->function_type;
-    for (auto &it : ec->type_params) {
-        if (it->vtype == TYPE_FIELD)
-            vec_push(irf->params, it->next->vtype);
+    for (auto &it : m_function_type->m_type_params) {
+        if (it->m_vtype == TYPE_FIELD)
+            irf->m_params.push_back(it->m_next->m_vtype);
         else
-            vec_push(irf->params, it->vtype);
-        if (!self->builtin) {
-            if (!ast_local_codegen(it, self->ir_func, true))
+            irf->m_params.push_back(it->m_vtype);
+        if (!m_builtin) {
+            if (!it->generateLocal(m_ir_func, true))
                 return false;
         }
     }
 
-    if (self->varargs) {
-        if (!ast_local_codegen(self->varargs, self->ir_func, true))
+    if (m_varargs) {
+        if (!m_varargs->generateLocal(m_ir_func, true))
             return false;
-        irf->max_varargs = self->varargs->count;
+        irf->m_max_varargs = m_varargs->m_count;
     }
 
-    if (self->builtin) {
-        irf->builtin = self->builtin;
+    if (m_builtin) {
+        irf->m_builtin = m_builtin;
         return true;
     }
 
     /* have a local return value variable? */
-    if (self->return_value) {
-        if (!ast_local_codegen(self->return_value, self->ir_func, false))
+    if (m_return_value) {
+        if (!m_return_value->generateLocal(m_ir_func, false))
             return false;
     }
 
-    if (self->blocks.empty()) {
-        compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "function `%s` has no body", self->name);
+    if (m_blocks.empty()) {
+        compile_error(m_context, "function `%s` has no body", m_name);
         return false;
     }
 
-    irf->first = self->curblock = ir_function_create_block(ast_ctx(self), irf, "entry");
-    if (!self->curblock) {
-        compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "failed to allocate entry block for `%s`", self->name);
+    irf->m_first = m_curblock = ir_function_create_block(m_context, irf, "entry");
+    if (!m_curblock) {
+        compile_error(m_context, "failed to allocate entry block for `%s`", m_name);
         return false;
     }
 
-    if (self->argc) {
+    if (m_argc) {
         ir_value *va_count;
         ir_value *fixed;
         ir_value *sub;
-        if (!ast_local_codegen(self->argc, self->ir_func, true))
+        if (!m_argc->generateLocal(m_ir_func, true))
             return false;
-        cgen = self->argc->codegen;
-        if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->argc), self, false, &va_count))
+        if (!m_argc->codegen(this, false, &va_count))
             return false;
-        cgen = self->fixedparams->codegen;
-        if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->fixedparams), self, false, &fixed))
+        if (!m_fixedparams->codegen(this, false, &fixed))
             return false;
-        sub = ir_block_create_binop(self->curblock, ast_ctx(self),
-                                    ast_function_label(self, "va_count"), INSTR_SUB_F,
-                                    ir_builder_get_va_count(ir), fixed);
+        sub = ir_block_create_binop(m_curblock, m_context,
+                                    makeLabel("va_count"), INSTR_SUB_F,
+                                    ir->get_va_count(), fixed);
         if (!sub)
             return false;
-        if (!ir_block_create_store_op(self->curblock, ast_ctx(self), INSTR_STORE_F,
+        if (!ir_block_create_store_op(m_curblock, m_context, INSTR_STORE_F,
                                       va_count, sub))
         {
             return false;
         }
     }
 
-    for (auto &it : self->blocks) {
-        cgen = it->codegen;
-        if (!(*cgen)(it.get(), self, false, &dummy))
-            return false;
+    for (auto &it : m_blocks) {
+        if (!it->codegen(this, false, &dummy))
+          return false;
     }
 
     /* TODO: check return types */
-    if (!self->curblock->final)
+    if (!m_curblock->m_final)
     {
-        if (!self->function_type->next ||
-            self->function_type->next->vtype == TYPE_VOID)
+        if (!m_function_type->m_next ||
+            m_function_type->m_next->m_vtype == TYPE_VOID)
         {
-            return ir_block_create_return(self->curblock, ast_ctx(self), nullptr);
+            return ir_block_create_return(m_curblock, m_context, nullptr);
         }
-        else if (vec_size(self->curblock->entries) || self->curblock == irf->first)
+        else if (m_curblock->m_entries.size() || m_curblock == irf->m_first)
         {
-            if (self->return_value) {
-                cgen = self->return_value->codegen;
-                if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->return_value), self, false, &dummy))
+            if (m_return_value) {
+                if (!m_return_value->codegen(this, false, &dummy))
                     return false;
-                return ir_block_create_return(self->curblock, ast_ctx(self), dummy);
+                return ir_block_create_return(m_curblock, m_context, dummy);
             }
-            else if (compile_warning(ast_ctx(self), WARN_MISSING_RETURN_VALUES,
+            else if (compile_warning(m_context, WARN_MISSING_RETURN_VALUES,
                                 "control reaches end of non-void function (`%s`) via %s",
-                                self->name, self->curblock->label.c_str()))
+                                m_name.c_str(), m_curblock->m_label.c_str()))
             {
                 return false;
             }
-            return ir_block_create_return(self->curblock, ast_ctx(self), nullptr);
+            return ir_block_create_return(m_curblock, m_context, nullptr);
         }
     }
     return true;
 }
 
-static bool starts_a_label(ast_expression *ex)
+static bool starts_a_label(const ast_expression *ex)
 {
     while (ex && ast_istype(ex, ast_block)) {
-        ast_block *b = (ast_block*)ex;
-        ex = b->exprs[0];
+        auto b = reinterpret_cast<const ast_block*>(ex);
+        ex = b->m_exprs[0];
     }
     if (!ex)
         return false;
@@ -1916,19 +1620,19 @@ static bool starts_a_label(ast_expression *ex)
  * curly braces {...}.
  * While in the IR it represents a block in terms of control-flow.
  */
-bool ast_block_codegen(ast_block *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
+bool ast_block::codegen(ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
 {
     /* We don't use this
      * Note: an ast-representation using the comma-operator
      * of the form: (a, b, c) = x should not assign to c...
      */
     if (lvalue) {
-        compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "not an l-value (code-block)");
+        compile_error(m_context, "not an l-value (code-block)");
         return false;
     }
 
-    if (self->outr) {
-        *out = self->outr;
+    if (m_outr) {
+        *out = m_outr;
         return true;
     }
 
@@ -1941,58 +1645,54 @@ bool ast_block_codegen(ast_block *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_valu
     *out = nullptr;
 
     /* generate locals */
-    for (auto &it : self->locals) {
-        if (!ast_local_codegen(it, func->ir_func, false)) {
+    for (auto &it : m_locals) {
+        if (!it->generateLocal(func->m_ir_func, false)) {
             if (OPTS_OPTION_BOOL(OPTION_DEBUG))
-                compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "failed to generate local `%s`", it->name);
+                compile_error(m_context, "failed to generate local `%s`", it->m_name);
             return false;
         }
     }
 
-    for (auto &it : self->exprs) {
-        ast_expression_codegen *gen;
-        if (func->curblock->final && !starts_a_label(it)) {
-            if (compile_warning(ast_ctx(it), WARN_UNREACHABLE_CODE, "unreachable statement"))
+    for (auto &it : m_exprs) {
+        if (func->m_curblock->m_final && !starts_a_label(it)) {
+            if (compile_warning(it->m_context, WARN_UNREACHABLE_CODE, "unreachable statement"))
                 return false;
             continue;
         }
-        gen = it->codegen;
-        if (!(*gen)(it, func, false, out))
+        if (!it->codegen(func, false, out))
             return false;
     }
 
-    self->outr = *out;
+    m_outr = *out;
 
     return true;
 }
 
-bool ast_store_codegen(ast_store *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
+bool ast_store::codegen(ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
 {
-    ast_expression_codegen *cgen;
     ir_value *left  = nullptr;
     ir_value *right = nullptr;
 
-    ast_value       *arr;
     ast_value       *idx = 0;
     ast_array_index *ai = nullptr;
 
-    if (lvalue && self->outl) {
-        *out = self->outl;
+    if (lvalue && m_outl) {
+        *out = m_outl;
         return true;
     }
 
-    if (!lvalue && self->outr) {
-        *out = self->outr;
+    if (!lvalue && m_outr) {
+        *out = m_outr;
         return true;
     }
 
-    if (ast_istype(self->dest, ast_array_index))
+    if (ast_istype(m_dest, ast_array_index))
     {
 
-        ai = (ast_array_index*)self->dest;
-        idx = (ast_value*)ai->index;
+        ai = (ast_array_index*)m_dest;
+        idx = (ast_value*)ai->m_index;
 
-        if (ast_istype(ai->index, ast_value) && idx->hasvalue && idx->cvq == CV_CONST)
+        if (ast_istype(ai->m_index, ast_value) && idx->m_hasvalue && idx->m_cvq == CV_CONST)
             ai = nullptr;
     }
 
@@ -2002,53 +1702,48 @@ bool ast_store_codegen(ast_store *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_valu
         ir_instr  *call;
 
         if (lvalue) {
-            compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "array-subscript assignment cannot produce lvalues");
+            compile_error(m_context, "array-subscript assignment cannot produce lvalues");
             return false;
         }
 
-        arr = (ast_value*)ai->array;
-        if (!ast_istype(ai->array, ast_value) || !arr->setter) {
-            compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "value has no setter (%s)", arr->name);
+        auto arr = reinterpret_cast<ast_value*>(ai->m_array);
+        if (!ast_istype(ai->m_array, ast_value) || !arr->m_setter) {
+            compile_error(m_context, "value has no setter (%s)", arr->m_name);
             return false;
         }
 
-        cgen = idx->codegen;
-        if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(idx), func, false, &iridx))
+        if (!idx->codegen(func, false, &iridx))
             return false;
 
-        cgen = arr->setter->codegen;
-        if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(arr->setter), func, true, &funval))
+        if (!arr->m_setter->codegen(func, true, &funval))
             return false;
 
-        cgen = self->source->codegen;
-        if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->source), func, false, &right))
+        if (!m_source->codegen(func, false, &right))
             return false;
 
-        call = ir_block_create_call(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), ast_function_label(func, "store"), funval, false);
+        call = ir_block_create_call(func->m_curblock, m_context, func->makeLabel("store"), funval, false);
         if (!call)
             return false;
         ir_call_param(call, iridx);
         ir_call_param(call, right);
-        self->outr = right;
+        m_outr = right;
     }
     else
     {
-        /* regular code */
+        // regular code
 
-        cgen = self->dest->codegen;
-        /* lvalue! */
-        if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->dest), func, true, &left))
+        // lvalue!
+        if (!m_dest->codegen(func, true, &left))
             return false;
-        self->outl = left;
+        m_outl = left;
 
-        cgen = self->source->codegen;
         /* rvalue! */
-        if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->source), func, false, &right))
+        if (!m_source->codegen(func, false, &right))
             return false;
 
-        if (!ir_block_create_store_op(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), self->op, left, right))
+        if (!ir_block_create_store_op(func->m_curblock, m_context, m_op, left, right))
             return false;
-        self->outr = right;
+        m_outr = right;
     }
 
     /* Theoretically, an assinment returns its left side as an
@@ -2063,24 +1758,23 @@ bool ast_store_codegen(ast_store *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_valu
     return true;
 }
 
-bool ast_binary_codegen(ast_binary *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
+bool ast_binary::codegen(ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
 {
-    ast_expression_codegen *cgen;
     ir_value *left, *right;
 
     /* A binary operation cannot yield an l-value */
     if (lvalue) {
-        compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "not an l-value (binop)");
+        compile_error(m_context, "not an l-value (binop)");
         return false;
     }
 
-    if (self->outr) {
-        *out = self->outr;
+    if (m_outr) {
+        *out = m_outr;
         return true;
     }
 
     if ((OPTS_FLAG(SHORT_LOGIC) || OPTS_FLAG(PERL_LOGIC)) &&
-        (self->op == INSTR_AND || self->op == INSTR_OR))
+        (m_op == INSTR_AND || m_op == INSTR_OR))
     {
         /* NOTE: The short-logic path will ignore right_first */
 
@@ -2091,54 +1785,52 @@ bool ast_binary_codegen(ast_binary *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_va
         size_t    merge_id;
 
         /* prepare end-block */
-        merge_id = func->ir_func->blocks.size();
-        merge    = ir_function_create_block(ast_ctx(self), func->ir_func, ast_function_label(func, "sce_merge"));
+        merge_id = func->m_ir_func->m_blocks.size();
+        merge    = ir_function_create_block(m_context, func->m_ir_func, func->makeLabel("sce_merge"));
 
         /* generate the left expression */
-        cgen = self->left->codegen;
-        if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->left), func, false, &left))
+        if (!m_left->codegen(func, false, &left))
             return false;
         /* remember the block */
-        from_left = func->curblock;
+        from_left = func->m_curblock;
 
         /* create a new block for the right expression */
-        other = ir_function_create_block(ast_ctx(self), func->ir_func, ast_function_label(func, "sce_other"));
-        if (self->op == INSTR_AND) {
+        other = ir_function_create_block(m_context, func->m_ir_func, func->makeLabel("sce_other"));
+        if (m_op == INSTR_AND) {
             /* on AND: left==true -> other */
-            if (!ir_block_create_if(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), left, other, merge))
+            if (!ir_block_create_if(func->m_curblock, m_context, left, other, merge))
                 return false;
         } else {
             /* on OR: left==false -> other */
-            if (!ir_block_create_if(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), left, merge, other))
+            if (!ir_block_create_if(func->m_curblock, m_context, left, merge, other))
                 return false;
         }
         /* use the likely flag */
-        vec_last(func->curblock->instr)->likely = true;
+        func->m_curblock->m_instr.back()->m_likely = true;
 
         /* enter the right-expression's block */
-        func->curblock = other;
+        func->m_curblock = other;
         /* generate */
-        cgen = self->right->codegen;
-        if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->right), func, false, &right))
+        if (!m_right->codegen(func, false, &right))
             return false;
         /* remember block */
-        from_right = func->curblock;
+        from_right = func->m_curblock;
 
         /* jump to the merge block */
-        if (!ir_block_create_jump(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), merge))
+        if (!ir_block_create_jump(func->m_curblock, m_context, merge))
             return false;
 
-        algo::shiftback(func->ir_func->blocks.begin() + merge_id,
-                        func->ir_func->blocks.end());
+        algo::shiftback(func->m_ir_func->m_blocks.begin() + merge_id,
+                        func->m_ir_func->m_blocks.end());
         // FIXME::DELME::
-        //func->ir_func->blocks[merge_id].release();
-        //func->ir_func->blocks.erase(func->ir_func->blocks.begin() + merge_id);
-        //func->ir_func->blocks.emplace_back(merge);
-
-        func->curblock = merge;
-        phi = ir_block_create_phi(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self),
-                                  ast_function_label(func, "sce_value"),
-                                  self->vtype);
+        //func->m_ir_func->m_blocks[merge_id].release();
+        //func->m_ir_func->m_blocks.erase(func->m_ir_func->m_blocks.begin() + merge_id);
+        //func->m_ir_func->m_blocks.emplace_back(merge);
+
+        func->m_curblock = merge;
+        phi = ir_block_create_phi(func->m_curblock, m_context,
+                                  func->makeLabel("sce_value"),
+                                  m_vtype);
         ir_phi_add(phi, from_left, left);
         ir_phi_add(phi, from_right, right);
         *out = ir_phi_value(phi);
@@ -2147,73 +1839,68 @@ bool ast_binary_codegen(ast_binary *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_va
 
         if (!OPTS_FLAG(PERL_LOGIC)) {
             /* cast-to-bool */
-            if (OPTS_FLAG(CORRECT_LOGIC) && (*out)->vtype == TYPE_VECTOR) {
-                *out = ir_block_create_unary(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self),
-                                             ast_function_label(func, "sce_bool_v"),
+            if (OPTS_FLAG(CORRECT_LOGIC) && (*out)->m_vtype == TYPE_VECTOR) {
+                *out = ir_block_create_unary(func->m_curblock, m_context,
+                                             func->makeLabel("sce_bool_v"),
                                              INSTR_NOT_V, *out);
                 if (!*out)
                     return false;
-                *out = ir_block_create_unary(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self),
-                                             ast_function_label(func, "sce_bool"),
+                *out = ir_block_create_unary(func->m_curblock, m_context,
+                                             func->makeLabel("sce_bool"),
                                              INSTR_NOT_F, *out);
                 if (!*out)
                     return false;
             }
-            else if (OPTS_FLAG(FALSE_EMPTY_STRINGS) && (*out)->vtype == TYPE_STRING) {
-                *out = ir_block_create_unary(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self),
-                                             ast_function_label(func, "sce_bool_s"),
+            else if (OPTS_FLAG(FALSE_EMPTY_STRINGS) && (*out)->m_vtype == TYPE_STRING) {
+                *out = ir_block_create_unary(func->m_curblock, m_context,
+                                             func->makeLabel("sce_bool_s"),
                                              INSTR_NOT_S, *out);
                 if (!*out)
                     return false;
-                *out = ir_block_create_unary(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self),
-                                             ast_function_label(func, "sce_bool"),
+                *out = ir_block_create_unary(func->m_curblock, m_context,
+                                             func->makeLabel("sce_bool"),
                                              INSTR_NOT_F, *out);
                 if (!*out)
                     return false;
             }
             else {
-                *out = ir_block_create_binop(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self),
-                                             ast_function_label(func, "sce_bool"),
+                *out = ir_block_create_binop(func->m_curblock, m_context,
+                                             func->makeLabel("sce_bool"),
                                              INSTR_AND, *out, *out);
                 if (!*out)
                     return false;
             }
         }
 
-        self->outr = *out;
-        codegen_output_type(self, *out);
+        m_outr = *out;
+        codegen_output_type(this, *out);
         return true;
     }
 
-    if (self->right_first) {
-        cgen = self->right->codegen;
-        if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->right), func, false, &right))
+    if (m_right_first) {
+        if (!m_right->codegen(func, false, &right))
             return false;
-        cgen = self->left->codegen;
-        if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->left), func, false, &left))
+        if (!m_left->codegen(func, false, &left))
             return false;
     } else {
-        cgen = self->left->codegen;
-        if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->left), func, false, &left))
+        if (!m_left->codegen(func, false, &left))
             return false;
-        cgen = self->right->codegen;
-        if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->right), func, false, &right))
+        if (!m_right->codegen(func, false, &right))
             return false;
     }
 
-    *out = ir_block_create_binop(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), ast_function_label(func, "bin"),
-                                 self->op, left, right);
+    *out = ir_block_create_binop(func->m_curblock, m_context, func->makeLabel("bin"),
+                                 m_op, left, right);
     if (!*out)
         return false;
-    self->outr = *out;
-    codegen_output_type(self, *out);
+    m_outr = *out;
+    codegen_output_type(this, *out);
 
     return true;
 }
 
-bool ast_binstore_codegen(ast_binstore *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
+bool ast_binstore::codegen(ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
 {
-    ast_expression_codegen *cgen;
     ir_value *leftl = nullptr, *leftr, *right, *bin;
 
     ast_value       *arr;
@@ -2221,46 +1908,44 @@ bool ast_binstore_codegen(ast_binstore *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, i
     ast_array_index *ai = nullptr;
     ir_value        *iridx = nullptr;
 
-    if (lvalue && self->outl) {
-        *out = self->outl;
+    if (lvalue && m_outl) {
+        *out = m_outl;
         return true;
     }
 
-    if (!lvalue && self->outr) {
-        *out = self->outr;
+    if (!lvalue && m_outr) {
+        *out = m_outr;
         return true;
     }
 
-    if (ast_istype(self->dest, ast_array_index))
+    if (ast_istype(m_dest, ast_array_index))
     {
 
-        ai = (ast_array_index*)self->dest;
-        idx = (ast_value*)ai->index;
+        ai = (ast_array_index*)m_dest;
+        idx = (ast_value*)ai->m_index;
 
-        if (ast_istype(ai->index, ast_value) && idx->hasvalue && idx->cvq == CV_CONST)
+        if (ast_istype(ai->m_index, ast_value) && idx->m_hasvalue && idx->m_cvq == CV_CONST)
             ai = nullptr;
     }
 
     /* for a binstore we need both an lvalue and an rvalue for the left side */
     /* rvalue of destination! */
     if (ai) {
-        cgen = idx->codegen;
-        if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(idx), func, false, &iridx))
+        if (!idx->codegen(func, false, &iridx))
             return false;
     }
-    cgen = self->dest->codegen;
-    if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->dest), func, false, &leftr))
+
+    if (!m_dest->codegen(func, false, &leftr))
         return false;
 
     /* source as rvalue only */
-    cgen = self->source->codegen;
-    if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->source), func, false, &right))
+    if (!m_source->codegen(func, false, &right))
         return false;
 
     /* now the binary */
-    bin = ir_block_create_binop(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), ast_function_label(func, "binst"),
-                                self->opbin, leftr, right);
-    self->outr = bin;
+    bin = ir_block_create_binop(func->m_curblock, m_context, func->makeLabel("binst"),
+                                m_opbin, leftr, right);
+    m_outr = bin;
 
     if (ai) {
         /* we need to call the setter */
@@ -2268,37 +1953,35 @@ bool ast_binstore_codegen(ast_binstore *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, i
         ir_instr  *call;
 
         if (lvalue) {
-            compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "array-subscript assignment cannot produce lvalues");
+            compile_error(m_context, "array-subscript assignment cannot produce lvalues");
             return false;
         }
 
-        arr = (ast_value*)ai->array;
-        if (!ast_istype(ai->array, ast_value) || !arr->setter) {
-            compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "value has no setter (%s)", arr->name);
+        arr = (ast_value*)ai->m_array;
+        if (!ast_istype(ai->m_array, ast_value) || !arr->m_setter) {
+            compile_error(m_context, "value has no setter (%s)", arr->m_name);
             return false;
         }
 
-        cgen = arr->setter->codegen;
-        if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(arr->setter), func, true, &funval))
+        if (!arr->m_setter->codegen(func, true, &funval))
             return false;
 
-        call = ir_block_create_call(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), ast_function_label(func, "store"), funval, false);
+        call = ir_block_create_call(func->m_curblock, m_context, func->makeLabel("store"), funval, false);
         if (!call)
             return false;
         ir_call_param(call, iridx);
         ir_call_param(call, bin);
-        self->outr = bin;
+        m_outr = bin;
     } else {
-        /* now store them */
-        cgen = self->dest->codegen;
-        /* lvalue of destination */
-        if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->dest), func, true, &leftl))
+        // now store them
+        // lvalue of destination
+        if (!m_dest->codegen(func, true, &leftl))
             return false;
-        self->outl = leftl;
+        m_outl = leftl;
 
-        if (!ir_block_create_store_op(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), self->opstore, leftl, bin))
+        if (!ir_block_create_store_op(func->m_curblock, m_context, m_opstore, leftl, bin))
             return false;
-        self->outr = bin;
+        m_outr = bin;
     }
 
     /* Theoretically, an assinment returns its left side as an
@@ -2313,39 +1996,36 @@ bool ast_binstore_codegen(ast_binstore *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, i
     return true;
 }
 
-bool ast_unary_codegen(ast_unary *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
+bool ast_unary::codegen(ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
 {
-    ast_expression_codegen *cgen;
     ir_value *operand;
 
     /* An unary operation cannot yield an l-value */
     if (lvalue) {
-        compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "not an l-value (binop)");
+        compile_error(m_context, "not an l-value (binop)");
         return false;
     }
 
-    if (self->outr) {
-        *out = self->outr;
+    if (m_outr) {
+        *out = m_outr;
         return true;
     }
 
-    cgen = self->operand->codegen;
     /* lvalue! */
-    if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->operand), func, false, &operand))
+    if (!m_operand->codegen(func, false, &operand))
         return false;
 
-    *out = ir_block_create_unary(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), ast_function_label(func, "unary"),
-                                 self->op, operand);
+    *out = ir_block_create_unary(func->m_curblock, m_context, func->makeLabel("unary"),
+                                 m_op, operand);
     if (!*out)
         return false;
-    self->outr = *out;
+    m_outr = *out;
 
     return true;
 }
 
-bool ast_return_codegen(ast_return *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
+bool ast_return::codegen(ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
 {
-    ast_expression_codegen *cgen;
     ir_value *operand;
 
     *out = nullptr;
@@ -2354,136 +2034,170 @@ bool ast_return_codegen(ast_return *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_va
      * anything...
      */
     if (lvalue) {
-        compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "return-expression is not an l-value");
+        compile_error(m_context, "return-expression is not an l-value");
         return false;
     }
 
-    if (self->outr) {
-        compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: ast_return cannot be reused, it bears no result!");
+    if (m_outr) {
+        compile_error(m_context, "internal error: ast_return cannot be reused, it bears no result!");
         return false;
     }
-    self->outr = (ir_value*)1;
+    m_outr = (ir_value*)1;
 
-    if (self->operand) {
-        cgen = self->operand->codegen;
+    if (m_operand) {
         /* lvalue! */
-        if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->operand), func, false, &operand))
+        if (!m_operand->codegen(func, false, &operand))
             return false;
 
-        if (!ir_block_create_return(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), operand))
+        if (!ir_block_create_return(func->m_curblock, m_context, operand))
             return false;
     } else {
-        if (!ir_block_create_return(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), nullptr))
+        if (!ir_block_create_return(func->m_curblock, m_context, nullptr))
             return false;
     }
 
     return true;
 }
 
-bool ast_entfield_codegen(ast_entfield *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
+bool ast_entfield::codegen(ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
 {
-    ast_expression_codegen *cgen;
     ir_value *ent, *field;
 
-    /* This function needs to take the 'lvalue' flag into account!
-     * As lvalue we provide a field-pointer, as rvalue we provide the
-     * value in a temp.
-     */
+    // This function needs to take the 'lvalue' flag into account!
+    // As lvalue we provide a field-pointer, as rvalue we provide the
+    // value in a temp.
 
-    if (lvalue && self->outl) {
-        *out = self->outl;
+    if (lvalue && m_outl) {
+        *out = m_outl;
         return true;
     }
 
-    if (!lvalue && self->outr) {
-        *out = self->outr;
+    if (!lvalue && m_outr) {
+        *out = m_outr;
         return true;
     }
 
-    cgen = self->entity->codegen;
-    if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->entity), func, false, &ent))
+    if (!m_entity->codegen(func, false, &ent))
         return false;
 
-    cgen = self->field->codegen;
-    if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->field), func, false, &field))
+    if (!m_field->codegen(func, false, &field))
         return false;
 
     if (lvalue) {
         /* address! */
-        *out = ir_block_create_fieldaddress(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), ast_function_label(func, "efa"),
+        *out = ir_block_create_fieldaddress(func->m_curblock, m_context, func->makeLabel("efa"),
                                             ent, field);
     } else {
-        *out = ir_block_create_load_from_ent(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), ast_function_label(func, "efv"),
-                                             ent, field, self->vtype);
+        *out = ir_block_create_load_from_ent(func->m_curblock, m_context, func->makeLabel("efv"),
+                                             ent, field, m_vtype);
         /* Done AFTER error checking:
-        codegen_output_type(self, *out);
+        codegen_output_type(this, *out);
         */
     }
     if (!*out) {
-        compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "failed to create %s instruction (output type %s)",
+        compile_error(m_context, "failed to create %s instruction (output type %s)",
                  (lvalue ? "ADDRESS" : "FIELD"),
-                 type_name[self->vtype]);
+                 type_name[m_vtype]);
         return false;
     }
     if (!lvalue)
-        codegen_output_type(self, *out);
+        codegen_output_type(this, *out);
 
     if (lvalue)
-        self->outl = *out;
+        m_outl = *out;
     else
-        self->outr = *out;
+        m_outr = *out;
 
-    /* Hm that should be it... */
+    // Hm that should be it...
     return true;
 }
 
-bool ast_member_codegen(ast_member *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
+bool ast_member::codegen(ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
 {
-    ast_expression_codegen *cgen;
     ir_value *vec;
 
     /* in QC this is always an lvalue */
-    if (lvalue && self->rvalue) {
-        compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "not an l-value (member access)");
+    if (lvalue && m_rvalue) {
+        compile_error(m_context, "not an l-value (member access)");
         return false;
     }
-    if (self->outl) {
-        *out = self->outl;
+    if (lvalue && m_outl) {
+        *out = m_outl;
         return true;
     }
+    if (!lvalue && m_outr) {
+        *out = m_outr;
+        return true;
+    }
+
+    if (ast_istype(m_owner, ast_entfield)) {
+        ir_value *ent, *field;
+        auto entfield = reinterpret_cast<ast_entfield*>(m_owner);
+        if (!entfield->m_entity->codegen(func, false, &ent))
+            return false;
+        if (!entfield->m_field->codegen(func, false, &vec))
+            return false;
+        field = vec->vectorMember(m_field);
+        if (lvalue) {
+            *out = ir_block_create_fieldaddress(func->m_curblock, m_context, func->makeLabel("mefa"),
+                                                ent, field);
+        } else {
+            *out = ir_block_create_load_from_ent(func->m_curblock, m_context, func->makeLabel("mefv"),
+                                                 ent, field, m_vtype);
+        }
+        if (!*out) {
+            compile_error(m_context, "failed to create %s instruction (output type %s)",
+                     (lvalue ? "ADDRESS" : "FIELD"),
+                     type_name[m_vtype]);
+            return false;
+        }
+        if (lvalue)
+            m_outl = *out;
+        else
+            m_outr = *out;
+        return (*out != nullptr);
+    }
 
-    cgen = self->owner->codegen;
-    if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->owner), func, false, &vec))
+    // Vector member access
+    if (!m_owner->codegen(func, lvalue, &vec))
         return false;
 
-    if (vec->vtype != TYPE_VECTOR &&
-        !(vec->vtype == TYPE_FIELD && self->owner->next->vtype == TYPE_VECTOR))
+    if (vec->m_vtype != TYPE_VECTOR &&
+        !(vec->m_vtype == TYPE_FIELD && m_owner->m_next->m_vtype == TYPE_VECTOR))
     {
+        compile_error(m_context, "vector member produced neither vector nor field");
         return false;
     }
 
-    *out = ir_value_vector_member(vec, self->field);
-    self->outl = *out;
+    *out = vec->vectorMember(m_field);
+    if (!*out) {
+        compile_error(m_context, "internal error: failed to create vector member access");
+        return false;
+    }
+    if (lvalue)
+        m_outl = *out;
+    else
+        m_outr = *out;
 
     return (*out != nullptr);
 }
 
-bool ast_array_index_codegen(ast_array_index *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
+bool ast_array_index::codegen(ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
 {
     ast_value *arr;
     ast_value *idx;
 
-    if (!lvalue && self->outr) {
-        *out = self->outr;
+    if (!lvalue && m_outr) {
+        *out = m_outr;
         return true;
     }
-    if (lvalue && self->outl) {
-        *out = self->outl;
+    if (lvalue && m_outl) {
+        *out = m_outl;
         return true;
     }
 
-    if (!ast_istype(self->array, ast_value)) {
-        compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "array indexing this way is not supported");
+    if (!ast_istype(m_array, ast_value)) {
+        compile_error(m_context, "array indexing this way is not supported");
         /* note this would actually be pointer indexing because the left side is
          * not an actual array but (hopefully) an indexable expression.
          * Once we get integer arithmetic, and GADDRESS/GSTORE/GLOAD instruction
@@ -2492,89 +2206,84 @@ bool ast_array_index_codegen(ast_array_index *self, ast_function *func, bool lva
         return false;
     }
 
-    arr = (ast_value*)self->array;
-    idx = (ast_value*)self->index;
+    arr = reinterpret_cast<ast_value*>(m_array);
+    idx = reinterpret_cast<ast_value*>(m_index);
 
-    if (!ast_istype(self->index, ast_value) || !idx->hasvalue || idx->cvq != CV_CONST) {
+    if (!ast_istype(m_index, ast_value) || !idx->m_hasvalue || idx->m_cvq != CV_CONST) {
         /* Time to use accessor functions */
-        ast_expression_codegen *cgen;
         ir_value               *iridx, *funval;
         ir_instr               *call;
 
         if (lvalue) {
-            compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "(.2) array indexing here needs a compile-time constant");
+            compile_error(m_context, "(.2) array indexing here needs a compile-time constant");
             return false;
         }
 
-        if (!arr->getter) {
-            compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "value has no getter, don't know how to index it");
+        if (!arr->m_getter) {
+            compile_error(m_context, "value has no getter, don't know how to index it");
             return false;
         }
 
-        cgen = self->index->codegen;
-        if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->index), func, false, &iridx))
+        if (!m_index->codegen(func, false, &iridx))
             return false;
 
-        cgen = arr->getter->codegen;
-        if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(arr->getter), func, true, &funval))
+        if (!arr->m_getter->codegen(func, true, &funval))
             return false;
 
-        call = ir_block_create_call(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), ast_function_label(func, "fetch"), funval, false);
+        call = ir_block_create_call(func->m_curblock, m_context, func->makeLabel("fetch"), funval, false);
         if (!call)
             return false;
         ir_call_param(call, iridx);
 
         *out = ir_call_value(call);
-        self->outr = *out;
-        (*out)->vtype = self->vtype;
-        codegen_output_type(self, *out);
+        m_outr = *out;
+        (*out)->m_vtype = m_vtype;
+        codegen_output_type(this, *out);
         return true;
     }
 
-    if (idx->vtype == TYPE_FLOAT) {
-        unsigned int arridx = idx->constval.vfloat;
-        if (arridx >= self->array->count)
+    if (idx->m_vtype == TYPE_FLOAT) {
+        unsigned int arridx = idx->m_constval.vfloat;
+        if (arridx >= m_array->m_count)
         {
-            compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "array index out of bounds: %i", arridx);
+            compile_error(m_context, "array index out of bounds: %i", arridx);
             return false;
         }
-        *out = arr->ir_values[arridx];
+        *out = arr->m_ir_values[arridx];
     }
-    else if (idx->vtype == TYPE_INTEGER) {
-        unsigned int arridx = idx->constval.vint;
-        if (arridx >= self->array->count)
+    else if (idx->m_vtype == TYPE_INTEGER) {
+        unsigned int arridx = idx->m_constval.vint;
+        if (arridx >= m_array->m_count)
         {
-            compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "array index out of bounds: %i", arridx);
+            compile_error(m_context, "array index out of bounds: %i", arridx);
             return false;
         }
-        *out = arr->ir_values[arridx];
+        *out = arr->m_ir_values[arridx];
     }
     else {
-        compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "array indexing here needs an integer constant");
+        compile_error(m_context, "array indexing here needs an integer constant");
         return false;
     }
-    (*out)->vtype = self->vtype;
-    codegen_output_type(self, *out);
+    (*out)->m_vtype = m_vtype;
+    codegen_output_type(this, *out);
     return true;
 }
 
-bool ast_argpipe_codegen(ast_argpipe *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
+bool ast_argpipe::codegen(ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
 {
     *out = nullptr;
     if (lvalue) {
-        compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "argpipe node: not an lvalue");
+        compile_error(m_context, "argpipe node: not an lvalue");
         return false;
     }
     (void)func;
     (void)out;
-    compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "TODO: argpipe codegen not implemented");
+    compile_error(m_context, "TODO: argpipe codegen not implemented");
     return false;
 }
 
-bool ast_ifthen_codegen(ast_ifthen *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
+bool ast_ifthen::codegen(ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
 {
-    ast_expression_codegen *cgen;
-
     ir_value *condval;
     ir_value *dummy;
 
@@ -2590,81 +2299,78 @@ bool ast_ifthen_codegen(ast_ifthen *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_va
     (void)out;
     (void)lvalue;
 
-    if (self->outr) {
-        compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: ast_ifthen cannot be reused, it bears no result!");
+    if (m_outr) {
+        compile_error(m_context, "internal error: ast_ifthen cannot be reused, it bears no result!");
         return false;
     }
-    self->outr = (ir_value*)1;
+    m_outr = (ir_value*)1;
 
     /* generate the condition */
-    cgen = self->cond->codegen;
-    if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->cond), func, false, &condval))
+    if (!m_cond->codegen(func, false, &condval))
         return false;
     /* update the block which will get the jump - because short-logic or ternaries may have changed this */
-    cond = func->curblock;
+    cond = func->m_curblock;
 
     /* try constant folding away the condition */
-    if ((folded = fold::cond_ifthen(condval, func, self)) != -1)
+    if ((folded = fold::cond_ifthen(condval, func, this)) != -1)
         return folded;
 
-    if (self->on_true) {
+    if (m_on_true) {
         /* create on-true block */
-        ontrue = ir_function_create_block(ast_ctx(self), func->ir_func, ast_function_label(func, "ontrue"));
+        ontrue = ir_function_create_block(m_context, func->m_ir_func, func->makeLabel("ontrue"));
         if (!ontrue)
             return false;
 
         /* enter the block */
-        func->curblock = ontrue;
+        func->m_curblock = ontrue;
 
         /* generate */
-        cgen = self->on_true->codegen;
-        if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->on_true), func, false, &dummy))
+        if (!m_on_true->codegen(func, false, &dummy))
             return false;
 
         /* we now need to work from the current endpoint */
-        ontrue_endblock = func->curblock;
+        ontrue_endblock = func->m_curblock;
     } else
         ontrue = nullptr;
 
     /* on-false path */
-    if (self->on_false) {
+    if (m_on_false) {
         /* create on-false block */
-        onfalse = ir_function_create_block(ast_ctx(self), func->ir_func, ast_function_label(func, "onfalse"));
+        onfalse = ir_function_create_block(m_context, func->m_ir_func, func->makeLabel("onfalse"));
         if (!onfalse)
             return false;
 
         /* enter the block */
-        func->curblock = onfalse;
+        func->m_curblock = onfalse;
 
         /* generate */
-        cgen = self->on_false->codegen;
-        if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->on_false), func, false, &dummy))
+        if (!m_on_false->codegen(func, false, &dummy))
             return false;
 
         /* we now need to work from the current endpoint */
-        onfalse_endblock = func->curblock;
+        onfalse_endblock = func->m_curblock;
     } else
         onfalse = nullptr;
 
     /* Merge block were they all merge in to */
-    if (!ontrue || !onfalse || !ontrue_endblock->final || !onfalse_endblock->final)
+    if (!ontrue || !onfalse || !ontrue_endblock->m_final || !onfalse_endblock->m_final)
     {
-        merge = ir_function_create_block(ast_ctx(self), func->ir_func, ast_function_label(func, "endif"));
+        merge = ir_function_create_block(m_context, func->m_ir_func, func->makeLabel("endif"));
         if (!merge)
             return false;
         /* add jumps ot the merge block */
-        if (ontrue && !ontrue_endblock->final && !ir_block_create_jump(ontrue_endblock, ast_ctx(self), merge))
+        if (ontrue && !ontrue_endblock->m_final && !ir_block_create_jump(ontrue_endblock, m_context, merge))
             return false;
-        if (onfalse && !onfalse_endblock->final && !ir_block_create_jump(onfalse_endblock, ast_ctx(self), merge))
+        if (onfalse && !onfalse_endblock->m_final && !ir_block_create_jump(onfalse_endblock, m_context, merge))
             return false;
 
         /* Now enter the merge block */
-        func->curblock = merge;
+        func->m_curblock = merge;
     }
 
     /* we create the if here, that way all blocks are ordered :)
      */
-    if (!ir_block_create_if(cond, ast_ctx(self), condval,
+    if (!ir_block_create_if(cond, m_context, condval,
                             (ontrue  ? ontrue  : merge),
                             (onfalse ? onfalse : merge)))
     {
@@ -2674,15 +2380,13 @@ bool ast_ifthen_codegen(ast_ifthen *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_va
     return true;
 }
 
-bool ast_ternary_codegen(ast_ternary *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
+bool ast_ternary::codegen(ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
 {
-    ast_expression_codegen *cgen;
-
     ir_value *condval;
     ir_value *trueval, *falseval;
     ir_instr *phi;
 
-    ir_block *cond = func->curblock;
+    ir_block *cond = func->m_curblock;
     ir_block *cond_out = nullptr;
     ir_block *ontrue, *ontrue_out = nullptr;
     ir_block *onfalse, *onfalse_out = nullptr;
@@ -2698,105 +2402,100 @@ bool ast_ternary_codegen(ast_ternary *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_
      * may still happen, thus we remember a created ir_value and simply return one
      * if it already exists.
      */
-    if (self->outr) {
-        *out = self->outr;
+    if (m_outr) {
+        *out = m_outr;
         return true;
     }
 
     /* In the following, contraty to ast_ifthen, we assume both paths exist. */
 
     /* generate the condition */
-    func->curblock = cond;
-    cgen = self->cond->codegen;
-    if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->cond), func, false, &condval))
+    func->m_curblock = cond;
+    if (!m_cond->codegen(func, false, &condval))
         return false;
-    cond_out = func->curblock;
+    cond_out = func->m_curblock;
 
     /* try constant folding away the condition */
-    if ((folded = fold::cond_ternary(condval, func, self)) != -1)
+    if ((folded = fold::cond_ternary(condval, func, this)) != -1)
         return folded;
 
     /* create on-true block */
-    ontrue = ir_function_create_block(ast_ctx(self), func->ir_func, ast_function_label(func, "tern_T"));
+    ontrue = ir_function_create_block(m_context, func->m_ir_func, func->makeLabel("tern_T"));
     if (!ontrue)
         return false;
     else
     {
         /* enter the block */
-        func->curblock = ontrue;
+        func->m_curblock = ontrue;
 
         /* generate */
-        cgen = self->on_true->codegen;
-        if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->on_true), func, false, &trueval))
+        if (!m_on_true->codegen(func, false, &trueval))
             return false;
 
-        ontrue_out = func->curblock;
+        ontrue_out = func->m_curblock;
     }
 
     /* create on-false block */
-    onfalse = ir_function_create_block(ast_ctx(self), func->ir_func, ast_function_label(func, "tern_F"));
+    onfalse = ir_function_create_block(m_context, func->m_ir_func, func->makeLabel("tern_F"));
     if (!onfalse)
         return false;
     else
     {
         /* enter the block */
-        func->curblock = onfalse;
+        func->m_curblock = onfalse;
 
         /* generate */
-        cgen = self->on_false->codegen;
-        if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->on_false), func, false, &falseval))
+        if (!m_on_false->codegen(func, false, &falseval))
             return false;
 
-        onfalse_out = func->curblock;
+        onfalse_out = func->m_curblock;
     }
 
     /* create merge block */
-    merge = ir_function_create_block(ast_ctx(self), func->ir_func, ast_function_label(func, "tern_out"));
+    merge = ir_function_create_block(m_context, func->m_ir_func, func->makeLabel("tern_out"));
     if (!merge)
         return false;
     /* jump to merge block */
-    if (!ir_block_create_jump(ontrue_out, ast_ctx(self), merge))
+    if (!ir_block_create_jump(ontrue_out, m_context, merge))
         return false;
-    if (!ir_block_create_jump(onfalse_out, ast_ctx(self), merge))
+    if (!ir_block_create_jump(onfalse_out, m_context, merge))
         return false;
 
     /* create if instruction */
-    if (!ir_block_create_if(cond_out, ast_ctx(self), condval, ontrue, onfalse))
+    if (!ir_block_create_if(cond_out, m_context, condval, ontrue, onfalse))
         return false;
 
     /* Now enter the merge block */
-    func->curblock = merge;
+    func->m_curblock = merge;
 
     /* Here, now, we need a PHI node
      * but first some sanity checking...
      */
-    if (trueval->vtype != falseval->vtype && trueval->vtype != TYPE_NIL && falseval->vtype != TYPE_NIL) {
+    if (trueval->m_vtype != falseval->m_vtype && trueval->m_vtype != TYPE_NIL && falseval->m_vtype != TYPE_NIL) {
         /* error("ternary with different types on the two sides"); */
-        compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: ternary operand types invalid");
+        compile_error(m_context, "internal error: ternary operand types invalid");
         return false;
     }
 
     /* create PHI */
-    phi = ir_block_create_phi(merge, ast_ctx(self), ast_function_label(func, "phi"), self->vtype);
+    phi = ir_block_create_phi(merge, m_context, func->makeLabel("phi"), m_vtype);
     if (!phi) {
-        compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: failed to generate phi node");
+        compile_error(m_context, "internal error: failed to generate phi node");
         return false;
     }
     ir_phi_add(phi, ontrue_out,  trueval);
     ir_phi_add(phi, onfalse_out, falseval);
 
-    self->outr = ir_phi_value(phi);
-    *out = self->outr;
+    m_outr = ir_phi_value(phi);
+    *out = m_outr;
 
-    codegen_output_type(self, *out);
+    codegen_output_type(this, *out);
 
     return true;
 }
 
-bool ast_loop_codegen(ast_loop *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
+bool ast_loop::codegen(ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
 {
-    ast_expression_codegen *cgen;
-
     ir_value *dummy      = nullptr;
     ir_value *precond    = nullptr;
     ir_value *postcond   = nullptr;
@@ -2823,11 +2522,11 @@ bool ast_loop_codegen(ast_loop *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value
     (void)lvalue;
     (void)out;
 
-    if (self->outr) {
-        compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: ast_loop cannot be reused, it bears no result!");
+    if (m_outr) {
+        compile_error(m_context, "internal error: ast_loop cannot be reused, it bears no result!");
         return false;
     }
-    self->outr = (ir_value*)1;
+    m_outr = (ir_value*)1;
 
     /* NOTE:
      * Should we ever need some kind of block ordering, better make this function
@@ -2838,22 +2537,21 @@ bool ast_loop_codegen(ast_loop *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value
     /* initexpr doesn't get its own block, it's pointless, it could create more blocks
      * anyway if for example it contains a ternary.
      */
-    if (self->initexpr)
+    if (m_initexpr)
     {
-        cgen = self->initexpr->codegen;
-        if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->initexpr), func, false, &dummy))
+        if (!m_initexpr->codegen(func, false, &dummy))
             return false;
     }
 
     /* Store the block from which we enter this chaos */
-    bin = func->curblock;
+    bin = func->m_curblock;
 
     /* The pre-loop condition needs its own block since we
      * need to be able to jump to the start of that expression.
      */
-    if (self->precond)
+    if (m_precond)
     {
-        bprecond = ir_function_create_block(ast_ctx(self), func->ir_func, ast_function_label(func, "pre_loop_cond"));
+        bprecond = ir_function_create_block(m_context, func->m_ir_func, func->makeLabel("pre_loop_cond"));
         if (!bprecond)
             return false;
 
@@ -2861,14 +2559,13 @@ bool ast_loop_codegen(ast_loop *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value
         bcontinue = bprecond;
 
         /* enter */
-        func->curblock = bprecond;
+        func->m_curblock = bprecond;
 
         /* generate */
-        cgen = self->precond->codegen;
-        if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->precond), func, false, &precond))
+        if (!m_precond->codegen(func, false, &precond))
             return false;
 
-        end_bprecond = func->curblock;
+        end_bprecond = func->m_curblock;
     } else {
         bprecond = end_bprecond = nullptr;
     }
@@ -2876,8 +2573,8 @@ bool ast_loop_codegen(ast_loop *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value
     /* Now the next blocks won't be ordered nicely, but we need to
      * generate them this early for 'break' and 'continue'.
      */
-    if (self->increment) {
-        bincrement = ir_function_create_block(ast_ctx(self), func->ir_func, ast_function_label(func, "loop_increment"));
+    if (m_increment) {
+        bincrement = ir_function_create_block(m_context, func->m_ir_func, func->makeLabel("loop_increment"));
         if (!bincrement)
             return false;
         bcontinue = bincrement; /* increment comes before the pre-loop-condition */
@@ -2885,8 +2582,8 @@ bool ast_loop_codegen(ast_loop *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value
         bincrement = end_bincrement = nullptr;
     }
 
-    if (self->postcond) {
-        bpostcond = ir_function_create_block(ast_ctx(self), func->ir_func, ast_function_label(func, "post_loop_cond"));
+    if (m_postcond) {
+        bpostcond = ir_function_create_block(m_context, func->m_ir_func, func->makeLabel("post_loop_cond"));
         if (!bpostcond)
             return false;
         bcontinue = bpostcond; /* postcond comes before the increment */
@@ -2894,70 +2591,67 @@ bool ast_loop_codegen(ast_loop *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value
         bpostcond = end_bpostcond = nullptr;
     }
 
-    bout_id = func->ir_func->blocks.size();
-    bout = ir_function_create_block(ast_ctx(self), func->ir_func, ast_function_label(func, "after_loop"));
+    bout_id = func->m_ir_func->m_blocks.size();
+    bout = ir_function_create_block(m_context, func->m_ir_func, func->makeLabel("after_loop"));
     if (!bout)
         return false;
     bbreak = bout;
 
     /* The loop body... */
-    /* if (self->body) */
+    /* if (m_body) */
     {
-        bbody = ir_function_create_block(ast_ctx(self), func->ir_func, ast_function_label(func, "loop_body"));
+        bbody = ir_function_create_block(m_context, func->m_ir_func, func->makeLabel("loop_body"));
         if (!bbody)
             return false;
 
         /* enter */
-        func->curblock = bbody;
+        func->m_curblock = bbody;
 
-        func->breakblocks.push_back(bbreak);
+        func->m_breakblocks.push_back(bbreak);
         if (bcontinue)
-            func->continueblocks.push_back(bcontinue);
+            func->m_continueblocks.push_back(bcontinue);
         else
-            func->continueblocks.push_back(bbody);
+            func->m_continueblocks.push_back(bbody);
 
         /* generate */
-        if (self->body) {
-            cgen = self->body->codegen;
-            if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->body), func, false, &dummy))
+        if (m_body) {
+            if (!m_body->codegen(func, false, &dummy))
                 return false;
         }
 
-        end_bbody = func->curblock;
-        func->breakblocks.pop_back();
-        func->continueblocks.pop_back();
+        end_bbody = func->m_curblock;
+        func->m_breakblocks.pop_back();
+        func->m_continueblocks.pop_back();
     }
 
     /* post-loop-condition */
-    if (self->postcond)
+    if (m_postcond)
     {
         /* enter */
-        func->curblock = bpostcond;
+        func->m_curblock = bpostcond;
 
         /* generate */
-        cgen = self->postcond->codegen;
-        if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->postcond), func, false, &postcond))
+        if (!m_postcond->codegen(func, false, &postcond))
             return false;
 
-        end_bpostcond = func->curblock;
+        end_bpostcond = func->m_curblock;
     }
 
     /* The incrementor */
-    if (self->increment)
+    if (m_increment)
     {
         /* enter */
-        func->curblock = bincrement;
+        func->m_curblock = bincrement;
 
         /* generate */
-        cgen = self->increment->codegen;
-        if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->increment), func, false, &dummy))
+        if (!m_increment->codegen(func, false, &dummy))
             return false;
 
-        end_bincrement = func->curblock;
+        end_bincrement = func->m_curblock;
     }
 
     /* In any case now, we continue from the outgoing block */
-    func->curblock = bout;
+    func->m_curblock = bout;
 
     /* Now all blocks are in place */
     /* From 'bin' we jump to whatever comes first */
@@ -2969,7 +2663,7 @@ bool ast_loop_codegen(ast_loop *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value
     else                 tmpblock = bout;
     */
 
-    if (!ir_block_create_jump(bin, ast_ctx(self), tmpblock))
+    if (!ir_block_create_jump(bin, m_context, tmpblock))
         return false;
 
     /* From precond */
@@ -2984,12 +2678,12 @@ bool ast_loop_codegen(ast_loop *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value
         */
 
         onfalse = bout;
-        if (self->pre_not) {
+        if (m_pre_not) {
             tmpblock = ontrue;
             ontrue   = onfalse;
             onfalse  = tmpblock;
         }
-        if (!ir_block_create_if(end_bprecond, ast_ctx(self), precond, ontrue, onfalse))
+        if (!ir_block_create_if(end_bprecond, m_context, precond, ontrue, onfalse))
             return false;
     }
 
@@ -3000,7 +2694,7 @@ bool ast_loop_codegen(ast_loop *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value
         else if (bpostcond)  tmpblock = bpostcond;
         else if (bprecond)   tmpblock = bprecond;
         else                 tmpblock = bbody;
-        if (!end_bbody->final && !ir_block_create_jump(end_bbody, ast_ctx(self), tmpblock))
+        if (!end_bbody->m_final && !ir_block_create_jump(end_bbody, m_context, tmpblock))
             return false;
     }
 
@@ -3011,7 +2705,7 @@ bool ast_loop_codegen(ast_loop *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value
         else if (bprecond)   tmpblock = bprecond;
         else if (bbody)      tmpblock = bbody;
         else                 tmpblock = bout;
-        if (!ir_block_create_jump(end_bincrement, ast_ctx(self), tmpblock))
+        if (!ir_block_create_jump(end_bincrement, m_context, tmpblock))
             return false;
     }
 
@@ -3028,62 +2722,60 @@ bool ast_loop_codegen(ast_loop *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value
         */
 
         onfalse = bout;
-        if (self->post_not) {
+        if (m_post_not) {
             tmpblock = ontrue;
             ontrue   = onfalse;
             onfalse  = tmpblock;
         }
-        if (!ir_block_create_if(end_bpostcond, ast_ctx(self), postcond, ontrue, onfalse))
+        if (!ir_block_create_if(end_bpostcond, m_context, postcond, ontrue, onfalse))
             return false;
     }
 
     /* Move 'bout' to the end */
-    algo::shiftback(func->ir_func->blocks.begin() + bout_id,
-                    func->ir_func->blocks.end());
+    algo::shiftback(func->m_ir_func->m_blocks.begin() + bout_id,
+                    func->m_ir_func->m_blocks.end());
     // FIXME::DELME::
-    //func->ir_func->blocks[bout_id].release(); // it's a vector<unique_ptr<>>
-    //func->ir_func->blocks.erase(func->ir_func->blocks.begin() + bout_id);
-    //func->ir_func->blocks.emplace_back(bout);
+    //func->m_ir_func->m_blocks[bout_id].release(); // it's a vector<std::unique_ptr<>>
+    //func->m_ir_func->m_blocks.erase(func->m_ir_func->m_blocks.begin() + bout_id);
+    //func->m_ir_func->m_blocks.emplace_back(bout);
 
     return true;
 }
 
-bool ast_breakcont_codegen(ast_breakcont *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
+bool ast_breakcont::codegen(ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
 {
     ir_block *target;
 
     *out = nullptr;
 
     if (lvalue) {
-        compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "break/continue expression is not an l-value");
+        compile_error(m_context, "break/continue expression is not an l-value");
         return false;
     }
 
-    if (self->outr) {
-        compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: ast_breakcont cannot be reused!");
+    if (m_outr) {
+        compile_error(m_context, "internal error: ast_breakcont cannot be reused!");
         return false;
     }
-    self->outr = (ir_value*)1;
+    m_outr = (ir_value*)1;
 
-    if (self->is_continue)
-        target = func->continueblocks[func->continueblocks.size()-1-self->levels];
+    if (m_is_continue)
+        target = func->m_continueblocks[func->m_continueblocks.size()-1-m_levels];
     else
-        target = func->breakblocks[func->breakblocks.size()-1-self->levels];
+        target = func->m_breakblocks[func->m_breakblocks.size()-1-m_levels];
 
     if (!target) {
-        compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "%s is lacking a target block", (self->is_continue ? "continue" : "break"));
+        compile_error(m_context, "%s is lacking a target block", (m_is_continue ? "continue" : "break"));
         return false;
     }
 
-    if (!ir_block_create_jump(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), target))
+    if (!ir_block_create_jump(func->m_curblock, m_context, target))
         return false;
     return true;
 }
 
-bool ast_switch_codegen(ast_switch *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
+bool ast_switch::codegen(ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
 {
-    ast_expression_codegen *cgen;
-
     ast_switch_case *def_case     = nullptr;
     ir_block        *def_bfall    = nullptr;
     ir_block        *def_bfall_to = nullptr;
@@ -3099,95 +2791,92 @@ bool ast_switch_codegen(ast_switch *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_va
     uint16_t  cmpinstr;
 
     if (lvalue) {
-        compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "switch expression is not an l-value");
+        compile_error(m_context, "switch expression is not an l-value");
         return false;
     }
 
-    if (self->outr) {
-        compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: ast_switch cannot be reused!");
+    if (m_outr) {
+        compile_error(m_context, "internal error: ast_switch cannot be reused!");
         return false;
     }
-    self->outr = (ir_value*)1;
+    m_outr = (ir_value*)1;
 
     (void)lvalue;
     (void)out;
 
-    cgen = self->operand->codegen;
-    if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->operand), func, false, &irop))
+    if (!m_operand->codegen(func, false, &irop))
         return false;
 
-    if (self->cases.empty())
+    if (m_cases.empty())
         return true;
 
-    cmpinstr = type_eq_instr[irop->vtype];
+    cmpinstr = type_eq_instr[irop->m_vtype];
     if (cmpinstr >= VINSTR_END) {
-        ast_type_to_string(self->operand, typestr, sizeof(typestr));
-        compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "invalid type to perform a switch on: %s", typestr);
+        ast_type_to_string(m_operand, typestr, sizeof(typestr));
+        compile_error(m_context, "invalid type to perform a switch on: %s", typestr);
         return false;
     }
 
-    bout_id = func->ir_func->blocks.size();
-    bout = ir_function_create_block(ast_ctx(self), func->ir_func, ast_function_label(func, "after_switch"));
+    bout_id = func->m_ir_func->m_blocks.size();
+    bout = ir_function_create_block(m_context, func->m_ir_func, func->makeLabel("after_switch"));
     if (!bout)
         return false;
 
     /* setup the break block */
-    func->breakblocks.push_back(bout);
+    func->m_breakblocks.push_back(bout);
 
     /* Now create all cases */
-    for (auto &it : self->cases) {
+    for (auto &it : m_cases) {
         ir_value *cond, *val;
         ir_block *bcase, *bnot;
         size_t bnot_id;
 
         ast_switch_case *swcase = &it;
 
-        if (swcase->value) {
+        if (swcase->m_value) {
             /* A regular case */
             /* generate the condition operand */
-            cgen = swcase->value->codegen;
-            if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(swcase->value), func, false, &val))
+            if (!swcase->m_value->codegen(func, false, &val))
                 return false;
             /* generate the condition */
-            cond = ir_block_create_binop(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), ast_function_label(func, "switch_eq"), cmpinstr, irop, val);
+            cond = ir_block_create_binop(func->m_curblock, m_context, func->makeLabel("switch_eq"), cmpinstr, irop, val);
             if (!cond)
                 return false;
 
-            bcase = ir_function_create_block(ast_ctx(self), func->ir_func, ast_function_label(func, "case"));
-            bnot_id = func->ir_func->blocks.size();
-            bnot = ir_function_create_block(ast_ctx(self), func->ir_func, ast_function_label(func, "not_case"));
+            bcase = ir_function_create_block(m_context, func->m_ir_func, func->makeLabel("case"));
+            bnot_id = func->m_ir_func->m_blocks.size();
+            bnot = ir_function_create_block(m_context, func->m_ir_func, func->makeLabel("not_case"));
             if (!bcase || !bnot)
                 return false;
             if (set_def_bfall_to) {
                 set_def_bfall_to = false;
                 def_bfall_to = bcase;
             }
-            if (!ir_block_create_if(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), cond, bcase, bnot))
+            if (!ir_block_create_if(func->m_curblock, m_context, cond, bcase, bnot))
                 return false;
 
             /* Make the previous case-end fall through */
-            if (bfall && !bfall->final) {
-                if (!ir_block_create_jump(bfall, ast_ctx(self), bcase))
+            if (bfall && !bfall->m_final) {
+                if (!ir_block_create_jump(bfall, m_context, bcase))
                     return false;
             }
 
             /* enter the case */
-            func->curblock = bcase;
-            cgen = swcase->code->codegen;
-            if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)swcase->code, func, false, &dummy))
+            func->m_curblock = bcase;
+            if (!swcase->m_code->codegen(func, false, &dummy))
                 return false;
 
             /* remember this block to fall through from */
-            bfall = func->curblock;
+            bfall = func->m_curblock;
 
             /* enter the else and move it down */
-            func->curblock = bnot;
-            algo::shiftback(func->ir_func->blocks.begin() + bnot_id,
-                            func->ir_func->blocks.end());
+            func->m_curblock = bnot;
+            algo::shiftback(func->m_ir_func->m_blocks.begin() + bnot_id,
+                            func->m_ir_func->m_blocks.end());
             // FIXME::DELME::
-            //func->ir_func->blocks[bnot_id].release();
-            //func->ir_func->blocks.erase(func->ir_func->blocks.begin() + bnot_id);
-            //func->ir_func->blocks.emplace_back(bnot);
+            //func->m_ir_func->m_blocks[bnot_id].release();
+            //func->m_ir_func->m_blocks.erase(func->m_ir_func->m_blocks.begin() + bnot_id);
+            //func->m_ir_func->m_blocks.emplace_back(bnot);
         } else {
             /* The default case */
             /* Remember where to fall through from: */
@@ -3201,9 +2890,9 @@ bool ast_switch_codegen(ast_switch *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_va
     }
 
     /* Jump from the last bnot to bout */
-    if (bfall && !bfall->final && !ir_block_create_jump(bfall, ast_ctx(self), bout)) {
+    if (bfall && !bfall->m_final && !ir_block_create_jump(bfall, m_context, bout)) {
         /*
-        astwarning(ast_ctx(bfall), WARN_???, "missing break after last case");
+        astwarning(bfall->m_context, WARN_???, "missing break after last case");
         */
         return false;
     }
@@ -3213,106 +2902,105 @@ bool ast_switch_codegen(ast_switch *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_va
         ir_block *bcase;
 
         /* No need to create an extra block */
-        bcase = func->curblock;
+        bcase = func->m_curblock;
 
         /* Insert the fallthrough jump */
-        if (def_bfall && !def_bfall->final) {
-            if (!ir_block_create_jump(def_bfall, ast_ctx(self), bcase))
+        if (def_bfall && !def_bfall->m_final) {
+            if (!ir_block_create_jump(def_bfall, m_context, bcase))
                 return false;
         }
 
         /* Now generate the default code */
-        cgen = def_case->code->codegen;
-        if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)def_case->code, func, false, &dummy))
+        if (!def_case->m_code->codegen(func, false, &dummy))
             return false;
 
         /* see if we need to fall through */
-        if (def_bfall_to && !func->curblock->final)
+        if (def_bfall_to && !func->m_curblock->m_final)
         {
-            if (!ir_block_create_jump(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), def_bfall_to))
+            if (!ir_block_create_jump(func->m_curblock, m_context, def_bfall_to))
                 return false;
         }
     }
 
     /* Jump from the last bnot to bout */
-    if (!func->curblock->final && !ir_block_create_jump(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), bout))
+    if (!func->m_curblock->m_final && !ir_block_create_jump(func->m_curblock, m_context, bout))
         return false;
     /* enter the outgoing block */
-    func->curblock = bout;
+    func->m_curblock = bout;
 
     /* restore the break block */
-    func->breakblocks.pop_back();
+    func->m_breakblocks.pop_back();
 
     /* Move 'bout' to the end, it's nicer */
-    algo::shiftback(func->ir_func->blocks.begin() + bout_id,
-                    func->ir_func->blocks.end());
+    algo::shiftback(func->m_ir_func->m_blocks.begin() + bout_id,
+                    func->m_ir_func->m_blocks.end());
     // FIXME::DELME::
-    //func->ir_func->blocks[bout_id].release();
-    //func->ir_func->blocks.erase(func->ir_func->blocks.begin() + bout_id);
-    //func->ir_func->blocks.emplace_back(bout);
+    //func->m_ir_func->m_blocks[bout_id].release();
+    //func->m_ir_func->m_blocks.erase(func->m_ir_func->m_blocks.begin() + bout_id);
+    //func->m_ir_func->m_blocks.emplace_back(bout);
 
     return true;
 }
 
-bool ast_label_codegen(ast_label *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
+bool ast_label::codegen(ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
 {
     ir_value *dummy;
 
-    if (self->undefined) {
-        compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: ast_label never defined");
+    if (m_undefined) {
+        compile_error(m_context, "internal error: ast_label never defined");
         return false;
     }
 
     *out = nullptr;
     if (lvalue) {
-        compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: ast_label cannot be an lvalue");
+        compile_error(m_context, "internal error: ast_label cannot be an lvalue");
         return false;
     }
 
     /* simply create a new block and jump to it */
-    self->irblock = ir_function_create_block(ast_ctx(self), func->ir_func, self->name);
-    if (!self->irblock) {
-        compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "failed to allocate label block `%s`", self->name);
+    m_irblock = ir_function_create_block(m_context, func->m_ir_func, m_name.c_str());
+    if (!m_irblock) {
+        compile_error(m_context, "failed to allocate label block `%s`", m_name);
         return false;
     }
-    if (!func->curblock->final) {
-        if (!ir_block_create_jump(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), self->irblock))
+    if (!func->m_curblock->m_final) {
+        if (!ir_block_create_jump(func->m_curblock, m_context, m_irblock))
             return false;
     }
 
     /* enter the new block */
-    func->curblock = self->irblock;
+    func->m_curblock = m_irblock;
 
     /* Generate all the leftover gotos */
-    for (auto &it : self->gotos) {
-        if (!ast_goto_codegen(it, func, false, &dummy))
+    for (auto &it : m_gotos) {
+        if (!it->codegen(func, false, &dummy))
             return false;
     }
 
     return true;
 }
 
-bool ast_goto_codegen(ast_goto *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
+bool ast_goto::codegen(ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
 {
     *out = nullptr;
     if (lvalue) {
-        compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: ast_goto cannot be an lvalue");
+        compile_error(m_context, "internal error: ast_goto cannot be an lvalue");
         return false;
     }
 
-    if (self->target->irblock) {
-        if (self->irblock_from) {
+    if (m_target->m_irblock) {
+        if (m_irblock_from) {
             /* we already tried once, this is the callback */
-            self->irblock_from->final = false;
-            if (!ir_block_create_goto(self->irblock_from, ast_ctx(self), self->target->irblock)) {
-                compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "failed to generate goto to `%s`", self->name);
+            m_irblock_from->m_final = false;
+            if (!ir_block_create_goto(m_irblock_from, m_context, m_target->m_irblock)) {
+                compile_error(m_context, "failed to generate goto to `%s`", m_name);
                 return false;
             }
         }
         else
         {
-            if (!ir_block_create_goto(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), self->target->irblock)) {
-                compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "failed to generate goto to `%s`", self->name);
+            if (!ir_block_create_goto(func->m_curblock, m_context, m_target->m_irblock)) {
+                compile_error(m_context, "failed to generate goto to `%s`", m_name);
                 return false;
             }
         }
@@ -3322,55 +3010,49 @@ bool ast_goto_codegen(ast_goto *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value
         /* the target has not yet been created...
          * close this block in a sneaky way:
          */
-        func->curblock->final = true;
-        self->irblock_from = func->curblock;
-        ast_label_register_goto(self->target, self);
+        func->m_curblock->m_final = true;
+        m_irblock_from = func->m_curblock;
+        m_target->registerGoto(this);
     }
 
     return true;
 }
 
-#include <stdio.h>
-bool ast_state_codegen(ast_state *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
+bool ast_state::codegen(ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
 {
-    ast_expression_codegen *cgen;
-
     ir_value *frameval, *thinkval;
 
     if (lvalue) {
-        compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "not an l-value (state operation)");
+        compile_error(m_context, "not an l-value (state operation)");
         return false;
     }
-    if (self->outr) {
-        compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "internal error: ast_state cannot be reused!");
+    if (m_outr) {
+        compile_error(m_context, "internal error: ast_state cannot be reused!");
         return false;
     }
     *out = nullptr;
 
-    cgen = self->framenum->codegen;
-    if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->framenum), func, false, &frameval))
+    if (!m_framenum->codegen(func, false, &frameval))
         return false;
     if (!frameval)
         return false;
 
-    cgen = self->nextthink->codegen;
-    if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->nextthink), func, false, &thinkval))
+    if (!m_nextthink->codegen(func, false, &thinkval))
         return false;
     if (!frameval)
         return false;
 
-    if (!ir_block_create_state_op(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), frameval, thinkval)) {
-        compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "failed to create STATE instruction");
+    if (!ir_block_create_state_op(func->m_curblock, m_context, frameval, thinkval)) {
+        compile_error(m_context, "failed to create STATE instruction");
         return false;
     }
 
-    self->outr = (ir_value*)1;
+    m_outr = (ir_value*)1;
     return true;
 }
 
-bool ast_call_codegen(ast_call *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
+bool ast_call::codegen(ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value **out)
 {
-    ast_expression_codegen *cgen;
     std::vector<ir_value*> params;
     ir_instr *callinstr;
 
@@ -3378,26 +3060,24 @@ bool ast_call_codegen(ast_call *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value
 
     /* return values are never lvalues */
     if (lvalue) {
-        compile_error(ast_ctx(self), "not an l-value (function call)");
+        compile_error(m_context, "not an l-value (function call)");
         return false;
     }
 
-    if (self->outr) {
-        *out = self->outr;
+    if (m_outr) {
+        *out = m_outr;
         return true;
     }
 
-    cgen = self->func->codegen;
-    if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->func), func, false, &funval))
+    if (!m_func->codegen(func, false, &funval))
         return false;
     if (!funval)
         return false;
 
     /* parameters */
-    for (auto &it : self->params) {
+    for (auto &it : m_params) {
         ir_value *param;
-        cgen = it->codegen;
-        if (!(*cgen)(it, func, false, &param))
+        if (!it->codegen(func, false, &param))
             return false;
         if (!param)
             return false;
@@ -3405,22 +3085,21 @@ bool ast_call_codegen(ast_call *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value
     }
 
     /* varargs counter */
-    if (self->va_count) {
+    if (m_va_count) {
         ir_value   *va_count;
-        ir_builder *builder = func->curblock->owner->owner;
-        cgen = self->va_count->codegen;
-        if (!(*cgen)((ast_expression*)(self->va_count), func, false, &va_count))
+        ir_builder *builder = func->m_curblock->m_owner->m_owner;
+        if (!m_va_count->codegen(func, false, &va_count))
             return false;
-        if (!ir_block_create_store_op(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self), INSTR_STORE_F,
-                                      ir_builder_get_va_count(builder), va_count))
+        if (!ir_block_create_store_op(func->m_curblock, m_context, INSTR_STORE_F,
+                                      builder->get_va_count(), va_count))
         {
             return false;
         }
     }
 
-    callinstr = ir_block_create_call(func->curblock, ast_ctx(self),
-                                     ast_function_label(func, "call"),
-                                     funval, !!(self->func->flags & AST_FLAG_NORETURN));
+    callinstr = ir_block_create_call(func->m_curblock, m_context,
+                                     func->makeLabel("call"),
+                                     funval, !!(m_func->m_flags & AST_FLAG_NORETURN));
     if (!callinstr)
         return false;
 
@@ -3428,9 +3107,9 @@ bool ast_call_codegen(ast_call *self, ast_function *func, bool lvalue, ir_value
         ir_call_param(callinstr, it);
 
     *out = ir_call_value(callinstr);
-    self->outr = *out;
+    m_outr = *out;
 
-    codegen_output_type(self, *out);
+    codegen_output_type(this, *out);
 
     return true;
 }